Google – Wikipedia

American multinational technology ship’s company
This article is about the company. For the research engine, see Google Search. For other uses, see Google ( disambiguation )
Google LLC ( ) is an american english multinational engineering caller that focuses on artificial intelligence, [ 10 ] search engine, on-line ad, cloud computer science, calculator software, quantum calculation, e-commerce, and consumer electronics. It has been referred to as the “ most mighty company in the global ” and one of the populace ‘s most valuable brands due to its market laterality, data solicitation, and technical advantages in the area of artificial news. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] It is considered one of the Big Five American data technology companies, aboard Amazon, Apple, Meta, and Microsoft.

Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were PhD students at Stanford University in California. together they own about 14 % of its publicly listed shares and control 56 % of the stockholder vote world power through super-voting stock. The company went public via an initial public offer ( IPO ) in 2004. In 2015, Google was reorganized as a wholly own subordinate of Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet ‘s largest subordinate and is a holding caller for Alphabet ‘s Internet properties and interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google on October 24, 2015, replacing Larry Page, who became the chief executive officer of Alphabet. On December 3, 2019, Pichai besides became the chief executive officer of Alphabet. [ 15 ] The company has since quickly grown to offer a multitude of products and services beyond Google Search, many of which hold prevailing commercialize positions. These products address a wide image of consumption cases, including e-mail ( Gmail ), navigation ( Maps ), cloud computer science ( Cloud ), vane shop ( Chrome ), video sharing ( YouTube ), productivity ( Workspace ), operating systems ( Android ), cloud storage ( Drive ), lyric translation ( Translate ), photograph memory ( Photo ), video calling ( Meet ), smart base ( Nest ), smartphones ( Pixel ), wearable technology ( Fitbit ), gaming ( Stadia ), music streaming ( YouTube Music ), video on demand ( television receiver ), artificial intelligence ( Assistant ), machine learn APIs ( TensorFlow ), AI chips ( TPU ), and more. Discontinued Google products include Glass, Google+, Reader, Play Music, Nexus, Hangouts, and Inbox by Gmail. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Google is known for it highly ambitious technical innovations aimed at solving world ‘s biggest problems. [ 18 ] Some of these innovations include quantum computer science ( Sycamore ), self-driving cars ( Waymo, once the Google self-driving visualize ), smart cities ( Sidewalk Labs ), and transformer models ( Google Brain ). [ 19 ] Google and YouTube are the two most visit websites worldwide followed by Facebook and Twitter. Google is besides the largest search engine, mapping and navigation application, electronic mail provider, agency cortege, video recording sharing platform, photograph and obscure storehouse provider, mobile operate system, web browser, ML model, and AI virtual assistant supplier in the worldly concern as measured by market plowshare. On the number of most valuable brands, Google is ranked second gear by Forbes [ 20 ] and fourth by Interbrand. [ 21 ] It has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, censoring, search neutrality, antimonopoly and pervert of its monopoly position .

history

early years

Google began in January 1996 as a inquiry project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] The plan initially involved an unofficial “ third gear founder ”, Scott Hassan, the original lead programmer who wrote much of the code for the original Google Search engine, but he left before Google was formally founded as a company ; [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Hassan went on to pursue a career in robotics and founded the company Willow Garage in 2006. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, they theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites. [ 29 ] They called this algorithm PageRank ; it determined a web site ‘s relevance by the issue of pages, and the importance of those pages that linked spinal column to the original site. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Page told his ideas to Hassan, who began writing the code to implement Page ‘s ideas. [ 25 ] page and Brin originally nicknamed the newly search engine “ BackRub “, because the organization checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. [ 22 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Hassan equally well as Alan Steremberg were cited by foliate and Brin as being critical to the development of Google. Rajeev Motwani and Terry Winograd late co-authored with Page and Brin the first composition about the project, describing PageRank and the initial prototype of the Google search engine, published in 1998. Héctor García-Molina and Jeff Ullman were besides cited as contributors to the project. [ 34 ] PageRank was influenced by a similar page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for RankDex, developed by Robin Li in 1996, with Larry Page ‘s PageRank apparent including a citation to Li ‘s earlier RankDex patent ; Li by and by went on to create the chinese research engine Baidu. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] finally, they changed the name to Google ; the name of the search locomotive was a play on the parole googol, [ 22 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] a very large number written 10100 ( 1 followed by 100 zeros ), picked to signify that the search engine was intended to provide big quantities of information. [ 39 ]
Google's homepage in 1998 [40] Google ‘s original home page had a simple design because the company founders had little have in HTML, the markup language used for designing web pages. The knowledge domain name www.google.com was registered on September 15, 1997, [ 41 ] and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of Susan Wojcicki [ 24 ] in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a mate PhD scholar at Stanford, was hired as the beginning employee. [ 24 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Google was initially funded by an August 1998 investment of $ 100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, [ 22 ] co-founder of Sun Microsystems, a few weeks prior to September 7, 1998, the day Google was officially incorporated. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Google received money from three early angel investors in 1998 : Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University calculator skill professor David Cheriton, and entrepreneur Ram Shriram. [ 46 ] Between these initial investors, friends, and family Google raised around $ 1,000,000, which is what allowed them to open up their original workshop in Menlo Park, California. [ 47 ] After some extra, small investments through the end of 1998 to early on 1999, [ 46 ] a new $ 25 million round of fund was announced on June 7, 1999, [ 48 ] with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. [ 45 ]

growth

In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, [ 49 ] which is home to respective outstanding Silicon Valley engineering start-ups. [ 50 ] The following year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin ‘s initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. [ 51 ] [ 24 ] To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were entirely text-based. [ 52 ] In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the nonpayment research locomotive supplier for yahoo !, one of the most democratic websites at the time, replacing Inktomi. [ 53 ] [ 54 ]
In 2003, after outgrowing two early locations, the company leased an agency complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. [ 56 ] The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the discussion googolplex, the issue one followed by a googol zero. Three years by and by, Google bought the place from SGI for $ 319 million. [ 57 ] By that time, the name “ Google ” had found its way into casual lyric, causing the verb “ google “ to be added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as : “ to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet ”. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] The first use of the verb on television receiver appeared in an October 2002 episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. [ 60 ] additionally, in 2001 Google ‘s Investors felt the want to have a potent home management, and they agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the president and CEO of Google. [ 47 ]

initial public volunteer

On August 19, 2004, Google became a public caller via an initial public propose. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024. [ 61 ] The party offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $ 85 per plowshare. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Shares were sold in an on-line auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the hand. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The sale of $ 1.67 billion gave Google a grocery store capitalization of more than $ 23 billion. [ 66 ]
On November 13, 2006, Google acquired YouTube for $ 1.65 billion in Google sprout, [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ] On March 11, 2008, Google acquired DoubleClick for $ 3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertise agencies. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] By 2011, Google was handling approximately 3 billion searches per day. To handle this workload, Google built 11 datum centers around the earth with several thousand servers in each. These data centers allowed Google to handle the changing workload more efficiently. [ 47 ] In May 2011, the number of monthly singular visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] In May 2012, Google acquired Motorola Mobility for $ 12.5 billion, in its largest acquisition to date. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] [ 77 ] This purchase was made in separate to help Google gain Motorola ‘s considerable patent portfolio on fluid phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies, [ 78 ] chiefly Apple and Microsoft, [ 79 ] and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android. [ 80 ]

2012 ahead

In June 2013, Google acquired Waze, a $ 966 million share. [ 81 ] While Waze would remain an autonomous entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced location platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and Google Maps, Google ‘s own mapping military service. [ 82 ] Google announced the launch of a new company, called Calico, on September 19, 2013, to be led by Apple Inc. president Arthur Levinson. In the official public instruction, Page explained that the “ health and wellbeing ” company would focus on “ the challenge of ageing and associated diseases ”. [ 83 ]
entrance of build where Google and its subordinate Deep Mind are located at 6 Pancras Square, London On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. [ 84 ] Technology news web site Recode reported that the company was purchased for $ 400 million, yet the source of the information was not disclosed. A Google spokesperson declined to comment on the price. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google ‘s late growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics residential district. [ 87 ] According to Interbrand ‘s annual Best Global Brands report, Google has been the second most valuable brand in the populace ( behind Apple Inc. ) in 2013, [ 88 ] 2014, [ 89 ] 2015, [ 90 ] and 2016, with a valuation of $ 133 billion. [ 91 ] On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its respective interests as a pudding stone named Alphabet Inc. Google became Alphabet ‘s largest subsidiary company and the umbrella company for Alphabet ‘s Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became CEO of Alphabet. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] [ 94 ]
On August 8, 2017, Google fired employee James Damore after he distributed a memo throughout the company that argued bias and “ Google ‘s Ideological Echo Chamber “ clouded their think about diversity and inclusion, and that it is besides biological factors, not discrimination alone, that cause the average charwoman to be less interest than men in technical positions. [ 95 ] Google CEO Sundar Pichai accused Damore in violating company policy by “ advancing harmful sex stereotypes in our workplace ”, and he was fired on the like day. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] [ 98 ] between 2018 and 2019, tensions between the company ‘s leadership and its workers escalated as staff protested company decisions on inner sexual harassment, Dragonfly, a ban chinese search locomotive, and Project Maven, a military drone artificial intelligence, which had been seen as areas of tax income growth for the company. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] On October 25, 2018, The New York Times published the exposé, “ How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android ‘ ”. The caller subsequently announced that “ 48 employees have been fired over the death two years ” for intimate wrongdoing. [ 101 ] On November 1, 2018, more than 20,000 Google employees and contractors staged a ball-shaped walk-out to protest the company ‘s manage of sexual harassment complaints. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] CEO Sundar Pichai was reported to be in subscribe of the protests. [ 104 ] later in 2019, some workers accused the company of retaliating against home activists. [ 100 ] On March 19, 2019, Google announced that it would enter the video game market, launching a cloud gaming platform called Google Stadia. [ 105 ] On June 3, 2019, the United States Department of Justice reported that it would investigate Google for antimonopoly violations. [ 106 ] This led to the filing of an antimonopoly lawsuit in October 2020, on the grounds the company had abused a monopoly position in the search and search advertise markets. [ 107 ] In December 2019, former PayPal head operating policeman Bill Ready became Google ‘s newfangled commerce headman. Ready ‘s function will not be directly involved with Google Pay. [ 108 ] In April 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Google announced respective cost-cutting measures. such measures included slowing down hiring for the end of 2020, except for a humble number of strategic areas, recalibrating the focus and footstep of investments in areas like data centers and machines, and non-business essential commercialize and travel. [ 109 ] The 2020 Google services outage disrupted Google services : one in August that affected Google Drive among others, another in November affecting YouTube, and a third in December affecting the entire cortege of Google applications. All three outages were resolved within hours. [ 110 ] [ 111 ] [ 112 ] In 2021, the Alphabet Workers Union was founded, comprising by and large of Google employees. [ 113 ] In January 2021, the australian Government proposed legislation that would require Google and Facebook to pay media companies for the right to use their message. In reply, Google threatened to close off access to its search engine in Australia. [ 114 ] In March 2021, Google reportedly paid $ 20 million for Ubisoft ports on Google Stadia. [ 115 ] Google spend “ tens of millions of dollars ” on getting major publishers such as Ubisoft and Take-Two to bring some of their biggest games to Stadia. [ 116 ] In April 2021, The Wall Street Journal reported that Google ran a years-long program called ‘Project Bernanke ‘ that used data from past advertise bids to gain an advantage over competing for ad services. This was revealed in documents concerning the antimonopoly lawsuit filed by ten-spot US states against Google in December. [ 117 ] In September 2021, the australian government announced plans to curb Google ’ s capability to sell target ads, claiming that the caller has a monopoly on the market harming publishers, advertisers, and consumers. [ 118 ] In 2022, Google began accepting requests for the removal of telephone numbers, physical addresses and email addresses from its search results. It had previously accepted requests for removing confidential data only, such as Social Security numbers, bank score and citation calling card numbers, personal signatures, and medical records. even with the fresh policy, Google may remove information from alone certain but not all search queries. It would not remove contented that is “ broadly utilitarian ”, such as news program articles, or already function of the public record. [ 119 ] In May 2022, Google announced that the ship’s company had acquired California based, MicroLED expose technology development and manufacturing Start-up Raxium. Raxium is set to join Google ’ mho Devices and Services team to help in the development of micro-optics, monolithic integration, and system consolidation. [ 120 ]

Products and services

Search engine

Google indexes billions of web pages to allow users to search for the information they desire through the habit of keywords and operators. [ 121 ] According to comScore market inquiry from November 2009, Google Search is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a grocery store share of 65.6 %. [ 122 ] In May 2017, Google enabled a new “ Personal ” yellow journalism in Google Search, letting users search for contented in their Google accounts ‘ versatile services, including e-mail messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos. [ 123 ] [ 124 ] Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from respective websites. [ 125 ] Google besides hosts Google Books, a military service which searches the textbook found in books in its database and shows limited previews or and the entire book where allowed. [ 126 ]

ad

Google on ad-tech London, 2010 Google generates most of its revenues from ad. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital capacity products on Google and YouTube, Android and license and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. forty-six percentage of this net income was from clicks ( cost per clicks ), amounting to US $ 109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob, AdSense ( such as AdSense for Content, AdSense for Search, etc. ) and DoubleClick AdExchange. [ 127 ] In accession to its own algorithm for understanding search requests, Google uses technology its learning of DoubleClick, to project drug user interest and target advertise to the search context and the drug user history. [ 128 ] [ 129 ] In 2007, Google launched “ AdSense for Mobile “, taking advantage of the emerging mobile ad market. [ 130 ] Google Analytics allows web site owners to track where and how people use their web site, for case by examining click rates for all the links on a page. [ 131 ] Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a bipartite program. Google Ads allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content net, through a cost-per-click system. [ 132 ] The sister military service, Google AdSense, allows web site owners to display these advertisements on their web site and earn money every time ads are clicked. [ 133 ] One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click imposter, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being concern in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percentage of clicks were deceitful or invalid. [ 134 ] Google Search Console ( rebranded from Google Webmaster Tools in May 2015 ) allows webmasters to check the sitemap, crawl rate, and for security issues of their websites, adenine well as optimize their web site ‘s visibility .

consumer services

Web-based services

Google offers Gmail for e-mail, [ 135 ] Google Calendar for time-management and scheduling, [ 136 ] Google Maps for function, navigation and satellite imagination, [ 137 ] Google Drive for obscure repositing of files, [ 138 ] Google Docs, Sheets and Slides for productivity, [ 138 ] Google Photos for photograph storage and share, [ 139 ] Google Keep for note-taking, [ 140 ] Google Translate for language translation, [ 141 ] YouTube for television watch and sharing, [ 142 ] Google My Business for managing public business information, [ 143 ] and Duo for social interaction. [ 144 ] In March 2019, Google unveiled a swarm gaming service named Stadia. [ 105 ] A job search intersection has besides existed since before 2017, [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] Google for Jobs is an enhanced search have that aggregates listings from job boards and career sites. [ 148 ] Some Google services are not web-based. Google Earth, launched in 2005, allowed users to see high-definition satellite pictures from all over the universe for loose through a client software downloaded to their computers. [ 149 ]

software

Google develops the Android mobile operating organization, [ 150 ] vitamin a well as its smartwatch, [ 151 ] television, [ 152 ] car, [ 153 ] and Internet of things -enabled smart devices variations. [ 154 ] It besides develops the Google Chrome network browser, [ 155 ] and Chrome OS, an function arrangement based on Chrome. [ 156 ]

hardware

Google Pixel smartphones on display in a store In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own brand. [ 157 ] It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the “ Nexus “ branding [ 158 ] until its eventual discontinuance in 2016, replaced by a modern mark called Pixel. [ 159 ] In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, which runs on Chrome OS. [ 160 ] In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, which allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a dim-witted cardboard spectator that lets drug user place their smartphone in a limited front compartment to view virtual reality ( VR ) media. [ 163 ] other hardware products include :

enterprise services

Google Workspace ( once G Suite until October 2020 [ 166 ] ) is a monthly subscription propose for organizations and businesses to get entree to a collection of Google ‘s services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with extra administrative tools, singular domain names, and 24/7 digest. [ 167 ] On September 24, 2012, [ 168 ] Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely nonprofit organization business incubator providing startups with co-working spaces known as Campuses, with aid to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships. [ 169 ] Presently, there are seven Campus locations : Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw. On March 15, 2016, Google announced the presentation of Google Analytics 360 Suite, “ a determined of integrated data and commercialize analytics products, designed specifically for the needs of enterprise-class marketers ” which can be integrated with BigQuery on the Google Cloud Platform. Among other things, the cortege is designed to help “ enterprise class marketers ” “ see the complete customer travel “, generate “ utilitarian insights ”, and “ deliver engaging experiences to the right people ”. [ 170 ] Jack Marshall of The Wall Street Journal wrote that the suite competes with existing marketing cloud offerings by companies including Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, and IBM. [ 171 ]

Internet services

In February 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project, with experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more american english cities. [ 172 ] [ 173 ] Following Google ‘s corporate restructure to make Alphabet Inc. its parent company, Google Fiber was moved to Alphabet ‘s Access division. [ 174 ] [ 175 ] In April 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual network operator, that combines Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different telecommunication providers in an feat to enable seamless connectivity and fast Internet signal. [ 176 ] [ 177 ]

corporate affairs

Stock price performance and quarterly earnings

Google ‘s initial public offer ( IPO ) took topographic point on August 19, 2004. At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $ 85 per contribution. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The sale of $ 1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $ 23 billion. [ 66 ] The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $ 350 for the first fourth dimension on October 31, 2007, [ 178 ] chiefly because of strong sales and earnings in the on-line advertise market. [ 179 ] The tide in stock certificate price was fueled chiefly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and reciprocal funds. [ 179 ] GOOG shares split into GOOG class C shares and GOOGL class A shares. [ 180 ] The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the heart symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1. These watch symbols now refer to Alphabet Inc., Google ‘s holding company, since the fourthly quarter of 2015. [ 181 ] In the third quarter of 2005, Google reported a 700 % increase in net income, largely ascribable to boastfully companies shifting their advertise strategies from newspapers, magazines, and television to the Internet. [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ] For the 2006 fiscal class, the party reported $ 10.492 billion in total advertise revenues and only $ 112 million in license and other revenues. [ 185 ] In 2011, 96 % of Google ‘s tax income was derived from its ad programs. [ 186 ] Google generated $ 50 billion in annual tax income for the first base clock in 2012, generating $ 38 billion the former year. In January 2013, then-CEO Larry Page commented, “ We ended 2012 with a strong quarter … Revenues were up 36 % year-on-year, and 8 % quarter-on-quarter. And we hit $ 50 billion in revenues for the first clock death year – not a bad accomplishment in precisely a decade and a half. ” [ 187 ] Google ‘s consolidate tax income for the third base quarter of 2013 was reported in mid-october 2013 as $ 14.89 billion, a 12 percentage increase compared to the previous quarter. [ 188 ] Google ‘s Internet business was responsible for $ 10.8 billion of this total, with an addition in the number of users ‘ clicks on advertisements. [ 189 ] By January 2014, Google ‘s grocery store capitalization had grown to $ 397 billion. [ 190 ]

Tax avoidance strategies

Google uses versatile tax avoidance strategies. On the list of the largest information technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of lineage of its revenues. Google between 2007 and 2010 saved $ 3.1 billion in taxes by shuttling non-U.S. profits through Ireland and the Netherlands and then to Bermuda. such techniques lower its non-U.S. tax rate to 2.3 per cent, while normally the corporate tax rate in, for example, the UK is 28 per penny. [ 191 ] This has reportedly sparked a french probe into Google ‘s transfer pricing practices. [ 192 ] In 2020, Google said it had overhauled its controversial global tax structure and consolidated all of its intellectual place holdings rear to the US. [ 193 ]

Google Vice-President Matt Brittin testified to the Public Accounts Committee of the UK House of Commons that his UK sales team made no sales and therefore owed no sales taxes to the UK. [ 194 ] In January 2016, Google reached a colonization with the UK to pay £130m in back taxes plus higher taxes in future. [ 195 ] In 2017, Google channeled $ 22.7 billion from the Netherlands to Bermuda to reduce its tax beak. [ 196 ] In 2013, Google ranked 5th in lobbying outgo, up from 213th in 2003. In 2012, the company ranked 2nd in crusade donations of technology and Internet sections. [ 197 ]

corporate identity

Google ‘s logo from 2013 to 2015 The name “ Google ” originated from a misspelling of “ googol “, [ 198 ] [ 199 ] which refers to the act represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. page and Brin write in their original wallpaper on PageRank : [ 34 ] “ We chose our systems name, Google, because it is a common spell of googol, or 10100 and fits well with our goal of building very large-scale research engines. ” Having found its way increasingly into everyday lyric, the verb “ google “ was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning “ to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet. ” [ 200 ] [ 201 ] Google ‘s mission statement, from the beginning, was “ to organize the populace ‘s information and make it universally accessible and useful ”, [ 202 ] and its unofficial motto is “ Do n’t be evil “. [ 203 ] In October 2015, a associate motto was adopted in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase : “ Do the proper thing ”. [ 204 ] The original motto was retained in the code of conduct of Google, now a subsidiary company of Alphabet. The original Google logo was designed by Sergey Brin. [ 205 ] Since 1998, Google has been designing special, temp alternate logos to place on their home page intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998. [ 206 ] [ 207 ] The doodle was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in sheath the servers crashed. subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then- intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point ahead, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed “ Doodlers ”. [ 208 ] Google has a custom of creating April Fools ‘ Day jokes. Its first on April 1, 2000, was Google MentalPlex which allegedly featured the use of mental world power to search the web. [ 209 ] In 2007, Google announced a loose Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their gutter. [ 210 ] Google ‘s services contain easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef ‘s “ Bork bork bork, ” Pig Latin, “ Hacker ” or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as linguistic process selections for its search locomotive. [ 211 ] When searching for the news “ anagram, ” meaning a rearrangement of letters from one discussion to form other valid words, Google ‘s hypnotism feature of speech displays “ Did you mean : nag a jam ? ” [ 212 ]

workplace culture

On Fortune magazine ‘s list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012, [ 213 ] [ 214 ] [ 215 ] and fourth in 2009 and 2010. [ 216 ] [ 217 ] Google was besides nominated in 2010 to be the world ‘s most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent drawing card index. [ 218 ] Google ‘s corporate philosophy includes principles such as “ you can make money without doing evil, ” “ you can be serious without a suit, ” and “ work should be challenging and the challenge should be playfulness. ” [ 219 ] As of September 30, 2020, Alphabet Inc. had 132,121 employees, [ 220 ] of which more than 100,000 worked for Google. [ 9 ] Google ‘s 2020 diversity composition states that 32 percentage of its work force are women and 68 percentage are men, with the ethnicity of its work force being predominantly white ( 51.7 % ) and Asian ( 41.9 % ). [ 221 ] Within technical school roles, 23.6 percentage were women ; and 26.7 percentage of leadership roles were held by women. [ 222 ] In addition to its 100,000+ full-time employees, Google used about 121,000 impermanent workers and contractors, as of March 2019. [ 9 ] Google ‘s employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range “ from entry-level data center workers at tied one to managers and experienced engineers at level six. ” [ 223 ] As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy known as Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20 % of their exploit time on projects that sake them. Some of Google ‘s services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors. [ 224 ] In a spill the beans at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google ‘s Vice-President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches in the irregular half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off. [ 225 ] In 2005, articles in The New York Times [ 226 ] and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil doctrine. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] In an feat to maintain the company ‘s unique culture, Google designated a foreman Culture Officer whose function was to develop and maintain the culture and knead on ways to keep true to the core values that the party was founded on. [ 230 ] Google has besides faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees. [ 231 ] [ 232 ] In 2013, a class military action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Google, was filed for alleged “ no cold call ” agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees. [ 233 ] In a lawsuit filed January 8, 2018, multiple employees and subcontract applicants alleged Google discriminated against a class defined by their “ conservative political views [, ] male sex [, ] and/or [ … ] caucasian or asian race ”. [ 234 ] On January 25, 2020, the formation of an international workers coupling of Google employees, Alpha Global, was announced. [ 235 ] The alliance is made up of “ 13 different unions representing workers in 10 countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Switzerland. ” [ 236 ] The group is affiliated with UNI Global Union, which represents about 20 million international workers from respective unions and federations. The formation of the union is in reaction to dogged allegations of mistreatment of Google employees and a toxic workplace culture. [ 236 ] [ 237 ] [ 234 ] Google had previously been accused of surveilling and firing employees who were suspected of organizing a workers union. [ 238 ] In 2021 court documents revealed that between 2018 and 2020 Google ran an anti-union campaign called Project Vivian to “ convince them ( employees ) that unions suck ”. [ 239 ]

Office locations

Google ‘s New York City position build houses its largest advertising sales team. Google ‘s headquarters in Mountain View, California is referred to as “ the Googleplex “, a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries. [ 240 ] In 2006, Google moved into about 300,000 public square feet ( 27,900 m2 ) of position space at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan, New York City. The office was designed and built particularly for Google, and houses its largest advertising sales team. [ 241 ] In 2010, Google bought the construction house the headquarter, in a deal that valued the property at around $ 1.9 billion. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] In March 2018, Google ‘s parent company Alphabet bought the nearby Chelsea Market building for $ 2.4 billion. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive real estate transactions for a single building in the history of New York. [ 244 ] [ 245 ] [ 246 ] [ 247 ] In November 2018, Google announced its plan to expand its New York City office to a capability of 12,000 employees. [ 248 ] The like December, it was announced that a $ 1 billion, 1,700,000-square-foot ( 160,000 m2 ) headquarters for Google would be built in Manhattan ‘s Hudson Square vicinity. [ 249 ] [ 250 ] Called Google Hudson Square, the new campus is projected to more than double the number of Google employees working in New York City. [ 251 ] By late 2006, Google established a newly headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan. [ 252 ] In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon ‘s campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related ad tease and smartphone applications and programs. [ 253 ] [ 254 ] other office locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia ; Austin, Texas ; Boulder, Colorado ; Cambridge, Massachusetts ; San Francisco, California ; Seattle, Washington ; Kirkland, Washington ; Birmingham, Michigan ; Reston, Virginia, Washington, D.C., [ 255 ] and Madison, Wisconsin. [ 256 ]
Google ‘s Dublin Ireland office, headquarters of Google Ads for Europe It besides has intersection research and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney ( birthplace localization of Google Maps ) [ 257 ] and London ( part of Android growth ). [ 258 ] In November 2013, Google announced plans for a new London headquarter, a 1 million square foot office able to accommodate 4,500 employees. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions at the time of the deal ‘s announcement in January, [ 259 ] Google submitted plans for the new headquarter to the Camden Council in June 2017. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] In May 2015, Google announced its intention to create its own campus in Hyderabad, India. The raw campus, reported to be the company ‘s largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13,000 employees. [ 262 ] [ 263 ] Google ‘s Global Offices sum a entire of 85 Locations worldwide, [ 264 ] with 32 offices in North America, 3 of them in Canada and 29 in United States Territory, California being the country with the most Google ‘s offices with 9 in sum including the Googleplex. In the Latin America Region Google counts with 6 offices, in Europe 24 ( 3 of them in UK ), The Asia Pacific region counts with 18 offices chiefly in India and China, and the Africa Middle East region counts 5 offices .

North America

Latin America

  1. Belo Horizonte  Brazil
  2. Bogota  Colombia
  3. Buenos Aires  Argentina
  4. Mexico City  Mexico
  5. Santiago  Chile
  6. Sao Paulo  Brazil

Europe

Asia Pacific

Africa & Middle East

infrastructure

Google data centers are located in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. [ 265 ] There is no official data on the number of servers in Google data centers ; however, research and advisory firm Gartner estimated in a July 2016 report that Google at the clock time had 2.5 million servers. [ 266 ] Traditionally, Google relied on twin computing on commodity hardware like mainstream x86 computers ( like to home PCs ) to keep costs per question low. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] [ 269 ] In 2005, it started developing its own designs, which were only revealed in 2009. [ 269 ] Google built its own individual submarine communications cables ; the first, named Curie, connects California with Chile and was completed on November 15, 2019. [ 270 ] [ 271 ] The second in full Google-owned submarine cable, named Dunant, connects the United States with France and is planned to begin operation in 2020. [ 272 ] Google ‘s third subsea cable, Equiano, will connect Lisbon, Portugal with Lagos, Nigeria and Cape Town, South Africa. [ 273 ] The company ‘s one-fourth cable, named Grace Hopper, connects landing points in New York, US, Bude, UK and Bilbao, Spain, and is expected to become operational in 2022. [ 274 ]

environment

In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 Megawatt of electricity, adequate to satisfy approximately 30 % of the campus ‘ energy needs. [ 275 ] [ 276 ] The system is the largest rooftop photovoltaic power station constructed on a U.S. bodied campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the worldly concern. [ 275 ] Since 2007, Google has aimed for carbon paper disinterest in esteem to its operations. [ 277 ] Google disclosed in September 2011 that it “ endlessly uses adequate electricity to power 200,000 homes ”, about 260 million watt or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear office implant. sum carbon paper emissions for 2010 were precisely under 1.5 million metric tons, by and large due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percentage of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An average search uses merely 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5 % of the total electricity pulmonary tuberculosis by Google. [ 278 ] In 2010, Google Energy made its first investing in a renewable department of energy visualize, putting $ 38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of might, adequate to supply 55,000 homes. [ 279 ] In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authority to buy and sell energy at commercialize rates. [ 280 ] The pot exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced it would purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt happy Hereford weave farm. [ 281 ] In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatt of baron for 20 years. [ 282 ] In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it would purchase adequate renewable energy to match 100 % of the department of energy usage of its data centers and offices. The commitment will make Google “ the world ‘s largest bodied buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts ( 2,600 megawatts ) of wind and solar energy ”. [ 283 ] [ 284 ] [ 285 ] In November 2017, Google bought 536 megawatts of scent power. The purchase made the firm reach 100 % renewable energy. The wind department of energy comes from two ability plants in South Dakota, one in Iowa and one in Oklahoma. [ 286 ] In September 2019, Google ‘s head executive announced plans for a $ 2 billion scent and solar investing, the biggest renewable energy deal in corporate history. This will grow their green energy profile by 40 %, giving them an extra 1.6 gigawatt of clean energy, the company said. [ 287 ] In September 2020, Google announced it had retroactively offset all of its carbon emissions since the company ‘s foundation in 1998. [ 288 ] It besides committed to operating its data centers and offices using only carbon-free energy by 2030. [ 289 ] In October 2020, the party pledged to make the packaging for its hardware products 100 % plastic-free and 100 % reclaimable by 2025. It besides said that all its final fabrication manufacture sites will achieve a UL 2799 Zero Waste to Landfill certificate by 2022 by ensuring that the huge majority of waste from the fabrication action is recycled alternatively of ending up in a landfill. [ 290 ] Google donates to politicians who deny climate change, including Jim Inhofe, and sponsors climate change abnegation political groups including the State Policy Network and the Competitive Enterprise Institute. [ 291 ] [ 292 ] [ 293 ]

philanthropy

In 2004, Google formed the nonprofit organization beneficent Google.org, with a start-up store of $ 1 billion. [ 294 ] The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and ball-shaped poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a feasible circuit board hybrid electric fomite that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program ‘s executive director in 2004 [ 295 ] and Megan Smith has since replaced him as conductor. [ 296 ] In March 2007, in partnership with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute ( MSRI ), Google hosted the first Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at its headquarters in Mountain View. [ 297 ] In 2011, Google donated 1 million euro to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the adjacent five annual International Mathematical Olympiads ( 2011–2015 ). [ 298 ] [ 299 ] In July 2012, Google launched a “ Legalize Love “ campaign in support of gay rights. [ 300 ] In 2008, Google announced its “ undertaking 10100 ” which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. [ 301 ] After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program, [ 302 ] Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a sum of ten-spot million dollars to diverse ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a web site that intends to make all legal documents populace and on-line. [ 303 ] Responding to the humanitarian crisis after the russian invasion of Ukraine, Google announced a $ 15 mln contribution to support ukrainian citizens. [ 304 ] The party besides decided to transform its office in Warsaw into a aid center for refugees. [ 305 ]

criticism and controversies

San Francisco activists protest privately owned shuttle buses that transport workers for technical school companies such as Google from their homes in San Francisco and Oakland to corporate campuses in Silicon Valley. Google has had criticism over issues such as aggressive tax avoidance, [ 306 ] search neutrality, copyright, censoring of search results and content, [ 307 ] and privacy. [ 308 ] [ 309 ] other criticisms are alleged misapply and handling of search results, its use of others ‘ intellectual property, concerns that its compilation of data may violate people ‘s privacy, and the energy pulmonary tuberculosis of its servers, arsenic well as concerns over traditional business issues such as monopoly, restraint of trade, anti-competitive practices, and patent misdemeanor. Google once complied with Internet censoring policies of the People ‘s Republic of China, [ 310 ] enforced by means of filters colloquially known as “ The Great Firewall of China “, but no long does sol. As a resultant role, all Google services except for taiwanese Google Maps are blocked from access within mainland China without the aid of virtual private networks, proxy servers, or other similar technologies .

2018

In July 2018, Mozilla platform director Chris Peterson accused Google of intentionally slowing down YouTube operation on Firefox. [ 311 ] [ 312 ] In April 2019, former Mozilla administrator Jonathan Nightingale accused Google of intentionally and systematically sabotaging the Firefox browser over the past ten in order to boost adoption of Google Chrome. [ 313 ] In August 2018, The Intercept reported that Google is developing for the People ‘s Republic of China a ban version of its search engine ( known as Dragonfly ) “ that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest ”. [ 314 ] [ 315 ] however, the undertaking had been withheld due to privacy concerns. [ 316 ] [ 1 ]

2019

In 2019, a hub for critics of Google dedicated to abstaining from using Google products coalesced in the Reddit online residential district /r/degoogle. [ 317 ] The DeGoogle grassroots crusade continues to grow as privacy activists highlight information about Google products, and the associate incursion on personal privacy rights by the caller. In November 2019, the Office for Civil Rights of the United States Department of Health and Human Services began probe into Project Nightingale, to assess whether the “ multitude collection of individuals ’ aesculapian records ” complied with HIPAA. [ 318 ] According to The Wall Street Journal, Google secretively began the project in 2018, with St. Louis -based healthcare company Ascension. [ 319 ]

2022

In a 2022 National Labor Relations Board rule, court documents suggested that Google sponsored a close undertaking — Project Vivian to rede its employees and to discourage them from forming unions. [ 320 ]

Anti-trust, privacy, and other litigation

The european Commission, which imposed three fines on Google in 2017, 2018, and 2019

Fines and lawsuits

European Union

On June 27, 2017, the company received a record fine of € 2.42 billion from the European Union for “ promoting its own shop comparison service at the clear of search results. ” [ 321 ] On July 18, 2018, [ 322 ] the european Commission fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antimonopoly rules. The abuse of prevailing position has been referred to Google ‘s constraint applied to Android device manufacturers and network operators to ensure that traffic on Android devices goes to the Google search engine. On October 9, 2018, Google confirmed [ 323 ] that it had appealed the fine to the General Court of the European Union. [ 324 ] On October 8, 2018, a class action lawsuit was filed against Google and Alphabet due to “ non-public ” Google+ report data being exposed as a consequence of a microbe that allowed app developers to gain access to the individual data of users. The litigation was settled in July 2020 for $ 7.5 million with a payout to claimants of at least $ 5 each, with a maximum of $ 12 each. [ 325 ] [ 326 ] [ 327 ] On March 20, 2019, the european Commission imposed a €1.49 billion ( $ 1.69 billion ) ticket on Google for preventing rivals from being able to “ compete and innovate fairly ” in the on-line advertise market. European Union rival commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google had violated EU antimonopoly rules by “ imposing anti-competitive contractual restrictions on third-party websites ” that required them to exclude search results from Google ‘s rivals. [ 328 ] [ 329 ]

France

On January 21, 2019, French data regulator CNIL imposed a commemorate €50 million all right on Google for breaching the European Union ‘s General Data Protection Regulation. The judgment claimed Google had failed to sufficiently inform users of its methods for collecting data to personalize ad. Google issued a argument saying it was “ profoundly committed ” to foil and was “ studying the decision ” before determining its reply. [ 330 ] On January 6, 2022, France ‘s data privacy regulative body CNIL fined Alphabet ‘s Google a 150 million euro ( US $ 169 million ) for not allowing its internet users an easy refusal of Cookies along with Facebook. [ 331 ]

United States

After U.S. Congressional hearings in July 2020, [ 332 ] and a report from the U.S. House of Representatives ‘ antimonopoly subcommittee released in early October [ 333 ] the United States Department of Justice filed an antimonopoly lawsuit against Google on October 20, 2020, asserting that it has illegally maintained its monopoly stead in web search and search advertising. [ 334 ] [ 335 ] The lawsuit alleged that Google engaged in anticompetitive demeanor by paying Apple between $ 8 billion- $ 12 billion to be the default option search engine on iPhones. [ 336 ] Later that calendar month, both Facebook and Alphabet agreed to “ cooperate and assist one another ” in the face of probe into their on-line advertise practices. [ 337 ] [ 338 ]

individual browse lawsuit

In early June 2020, a $ 5 billion class-action lawsuit was filed against Google by a group of consumers, alleging that Chrome ’ s Incognito browsing mood still collects their user history. [ 339 ] [ 340 ] The lawsuit became known in March 2021 when a federal judge denied Google ‘s request to dismiss the case, ruling that they must face the group ’ mho charges. [ 341 ] [ 342 ] Reuters reported that the lawsuit alleged that Google ‘s CEO Sundar Pichai sought to keep the users unaware of this return. [ 343 ]

U.S. government contracts

Following media reports about PRISM, the NSA ‘s massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, respective engineering companies were identified as participants, including Google. [ 344 ] According to nameless sources, Google joined the PRISM plan in 2009, as YouTube in 2010. [ 345 ] Google has worked with the United States Department of Defense on drone software through the 2017 Project Maven that could be used to improve the accuracy of drone strikes. [ 346 ] In April 2018, thousands of Google employees, including senior engineers, signed a letter urging Google CEO Sundar Pichai to end this controversial contract with the Pentagon. [ 347 ] Google ultimately decided not to renew this DoD abridge, which was set to expire in 2019. [ 348 ]

See besides

Notes

  1. ^[1][2][3] The shift in dates reportedly happened to celebrate index-size milestones in tandem with the birthday.[4] Google was incorporated on September 4, 1998, however, since 2002, the company has celebrated its anniversaries on respective days in September, most frequently on September 27.The shift in dates reportedly happened to celebrate index-size milestones in tandem with the birthday .

References

far reading

  • Business data for Google, Inc.:
    • Bloomberg
    • Reuters
    • SEC filings

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