Microsoft Windows – Wikipedia

family of calculator operating systems developed by Microsoft
“ Windows ” redirects here. For the function of a build, see Window. For early uses, see Windows ( disambiguation )
Microsoft Windows, normally referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietorship graphic operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the calculation industry. active Microsoft Windows families include Windows NT and Windows IoT ; these may encompass subfamilies, ( e.g. Windows Server or Windows Embedded Compact ) ( Windows CE ). Defunct Microsoft Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Microsoft introduced an operate environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphic operate system shell for MS-DOS in answer to the growing interest in graphic exploiter interfaces ( GUIs ). [ 6 ] Microsoft Windows came to dominate the global ‘s personal computer ( personal computer ) market with over 90 % market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair invasion on their initiation in GUI development a implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh ( finally settled in court in Microsoft ‘s favor in 1993 ). On PCs, Windows is distillery the most popular function system in all countries. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system grocery store to Android, [ 9 ] because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones. In 2014, the issue of Windows devices sold was less than 25 % that of Android devices sold. This comparison, however, may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. however, numbers for waiter consumption of Windows ( that are comparable to competitors ) show one third market share, similar to that for goal user habit. As of October 2021, the most holocene version of Windows for PCs and tablets is Windows 11, version 21H2. The most recent version for embedded devices is Windows 11, version 21H2. [ 10 ] The most late version for server computers is Windows Server 2022, adaptation 21H2. [ 11 ] A specialized adaptation of Windows besides runs on the Xbox One and Xbox Series X/S television plot consoles. [ 12 ]


By marketing character

Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denotes a syndicate of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the calculate industry. As of 2014, the pursuit Windows families were being actively developed :
The following Windows families are no longer being developed :

Version history

The term Windows jointly describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows :

early versions

The history of Windows dates spinal column to 1981 when Microsoft started work on a program called “ Interface Manager ”. It was announced in November 1983 ( after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh ) under the list “ Windows ”, but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. [ 15 ] Windows 1.0 was to compete with Apple ‘s operate on system, but achieved fiddling popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operate system ; quite, it extends MS-DOS. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a course of study known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard Viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. alternatively all windows are tiled. only modal auxiliary verb dialogue boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. [ 16 ] Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, and was more popular than its harbinger. It features several improvements to the drug user interface and memory management. [ 17 ] Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The resultant role of this change led to Apple Computer filing a become against Microsoft alleging misdemeanor on Apple ‘s copyrights. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Windows 2.0 besides introduced more twist keyboard shortcuts and could make practice of elaborate memory. Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions : Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows/386 uses the virtual 8086 mood of the Intel 80386 to multitask several DOS programs and the page memory model to emulate expanded memory using available drawn-out memory. Windows/286, in malice of its name, runs on both Intel 8086 and Intel 80286 processors. It runs in veridical mode but can make use of the high memory area. [ citation needed ] In addition to wide Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from one-third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows sport set. The early versions of Windows are much thought of equally graphic shells, by and large because they ran on peak of MS-DOS and use it for file system services. [ 20 ] however, even the earliest window versions already assumed many typical operate on system functions ; notably, having their own feasible file format and providing their own device drivers ( timer, graphics, printer, sneak, keyboard and sound ). Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphic applications at the lapp meter, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory : code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became barely ; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished central processing unit control .

Windows 3.x

Windows 3.0, released in 1990, improved the design, largely because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers ( VxDs ) that allow Windows to share arbitrary devices between multi-tasked DOS applications. [ citation needed ] Windows 3.0 applications can run in protected modality, which gives them access to respective megabytes of memory without the debt instrument to participate in the software virtual memory system. They run inside the same address space, where the metameric memory provides a degree of protection. Windows 3.0 besides have improvements to the exploiter interface. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into fabrication. Windows 3.0 is the inaugural Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first base six months. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Windows 3.1, made broadly available on March 1, 1992, featured a face lift. In August 1993, Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrate peer-to-peer network features and a adaptation number of 3.11, was released. It was sold along with Windows 3.1. support for Windows 3.1 ended on December 31, 2001. [ 23 ] Windows 3.2, released 1994, is an update version of the chinese translation of Windows 3.1. [ 24 ] The update was limited to this lyric version, as it fixed alone issues related to the building complex writing system of the taiwanese speech. [ 25 ] Windows 3.2 was by and large sold by calculator manufacturers with a ten-disk interpretation of MS-DOS that besides had Simplified chinese characters in basic output and some translate utilities .

Windows 9x

The adjacent major consumer-oriented dismissal of Windows, Windows 95, was released on August 24, 1995. While hush remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 precede documentation for native 32-bit applications, plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking, farseeing file names of up to 255 characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors. Windows 95 besides introduced a redesigned, object oriented exploiter interface, replacing the former Program Manager with the Start menu, taskbar, and Windows Explorer beat. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft ; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that “ by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the commercialize in 2001, it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world. ” [ 26 ] Microsoft published four OEM Service Releases ( OSR ) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack. The first OSR of Windows 95 was besides the beginning version of Windows to be bundled with Microsoft ‘s vane browser, Internet Explorer. [ 27 ] Mainstream support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2000, and extended support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2001. [ 28 ] Windows 95 was followed up with the spill of Windows 98 on June 25, 1998, which introduced the Windows Driver Model, support for USB composite devices, hold for ACPI, hibernation, and accompaniment for multi-monitor configurations. Windows 98 besides included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update ( a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were besides made available for Windows 95 ). In May 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, an update adaptation of Windows 98. Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5.0 and Windows Media Player 6.2 amongst early upgrades. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, 2002, and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006. [ 29 ] On September 14, 2000, Microsoft released Windows Me ( Millennium Edition ), the last DOS-based interpretation of Windows. Windows Me incorporated ocular interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows 2000, had faster boot times than former versions ( which however, required the removal of the ability to access a actual mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs ), [ 30 ] expanded multimedia functionality ( including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker, and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras ), extra system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore, and updated home network tools. [ 31 ] however, Windows Me was faced with criticism for its accelerate and imbalance, along with hardware compatibility issues and its removal of real mode DOS support. PC World considered Windows Me to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst technical school merchandise of all time. [ 14 ]

Windows NT

Version history

early versions ( Windows NT 3.1/3.5/3.51/4.0/2000 )

In November 1988, a fresh exploitation team within Microsoft ( which included erstwhile Digital Equipment Corporation developers Dave Cutler and Mark Lucovsky ) began work on a revamp interpretation of IBM and Microsoft ‘s OS/2 operate on system known as “ NT OS/2 ”. NT OS/2 was intended to be a plug, multi-user operate on system with POSIX compatibility and a modular, portable kernel with preemptive multitasking and back for multiple central processing unit architectures. however, following the successful release of Windows 3.0, the NT growth team decided to rework the project to use an carry 32-bit larboard of the Windows API known as Win32 alternatively of those of OS/2. Win32 maintained a alike structure to the Windows APIs ( allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform ), but besides supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel. Following its blessing by Microsoft ‘s staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first 32-bit version of Windows. however, IBM objected to the changes, and ultimately continued OS/2 exploitation on its own. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] Windows NT was the first base Windows operating system based on a hybrid kernel. The loanblend kernel was designed as a modified microkernel, influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University, but without meeting all of the criteria of a pure microkernel. The inaugural acquittance of the resulting operate arrangement, Windows NT 3.1 ( named to associate it with Windows 3.1 ) was released in July 1993, with versions for background workstations and servers. Windows NT 3.5 was released in September 1994, focusing on performance improvements and patronize for Novell ‘s NetWare, and was followed up by Windows NT 3.51 in May 1995, which included extra improvements and support for the PowerPC computer architecture. Windows NT 4.0 was released in June 1996, introducing the redesign interface of Windows 95 to the NT series. On February 17, 2000, Microsoft released Windows 2000, a successor to NT 4.0. The Windows NT name was dropped at this compass point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows trade name. [ 33 ]

Windows XP

The adjacent major version of Windows NT, Windows XP, was released on October 25, 2001. The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the computer architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors. Windows XP would besides introduce a redesigned user interface ( including an update Start menu and a “ task-oriented ” Windows Explorer ), streamlined multimedia and network features, Internet Explorer 6, integration with Microsoft ‘s .NET Passport services, a “ compatibility manner “ to help provide backwards compatibility with software designed for former versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two independent editions : the “ Home ” edition was targeted towards consumers, while the “ Professional ” edition was targeted towards commercial enterprise environments and power users, and included extra security and network features. Home and Professional were by and by accompanied by the “ Media Center ” edition ( designed for home theater PCs, with an vehemence on corroborate for DVD playback, television tuner cards, DVR functionality, and remote controls ), and the “ Tablet personal computer ” version ( designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a pill computer, with hold for stylus pen input and extra pen-enabled applications ). [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Mainstream back for Windows XP ended on April 14, 2009. run support ended on April 8, 2014. [ 39 ] After Windows 2000, Microsoft besides changed its spill schedules for server operating systems ; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, was released in April 2003. [ 33 ] It was followed in December 2005, by Windows Server 2003 R2 .

Windows Vista

After a drawn-out development process, Windows Vista was released on November 30, 2006, for volume license and January 30, 2007, for consumers. It contained a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to meaning technical changes, with a particular focus on security system features. It was available in a count of different editions, and has been subject to some criticism, such as drop of operation, longer bang meter, criticism of new UAC, and nonindulgent license agreement. Vista ‘s server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008 .

Windows 7

On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 were released as RTM ( release to manufacture ) while the former was released to the public 3 months late on October 22, 2009. Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a big number of newly features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible. [ 40 ] Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesign Windows carapace with an update taskbar with revealable jump lists that contain shortcuts to files frequently used with specific applications and shortcuts to tasks within the application, [ 41 ] a home network organization called HomeGroup, [ 42 ] and performance improvements .

Windows 8 and 8.1

previous Windows logo ( 2012–2021 ) Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, 2012. A act of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft ‘s Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in-one PCs. These changes include the Start riddle, which uses big tiles that are more commodious for equal interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class of apps which are designed chiefly for manipulation on touch-based devices. The new Windows version required a minimum resolution of 1024×768 pixels, [ 43 ] efficaciously making it unfit for netbooks with 800×600-pixel screens. other changes include increase integration with overcast services and other on-line platforms ( such as social networks and Microsoft ‘s own OneDrive ( once SkyDrive ) and Xbox Live services ), the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new form known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM computer architecture, and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] An update to Windows 8, called Windows 8.1, [ 51 ] was released on October 17, 2013, and includes features such as new live tile sizes, deeper OneDrive integration, and many early revisions. Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 have been subject to some criticism, such as removal of the Start menu .

Windows 10

On September 30, 2014, Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8.1. It was released on July 29, 2015, and addresses shortcomings in the drug user interface inaugural introduced with Windows 8. Changes on personal computer include the rejoinder of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop quite than in full-screen mood. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1, Windows 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.1 devices from the Get Windows 10 Application ( for Windows 7, Windows 8.1 ) or Windows Update ( Windows 7 ). [ 52 ] In February 2017, Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows reference code repository from Perforce to Git. This migration involved 3.5 million classify files in a 300 gigabyte depository. [ 53 ] By May 2017, 90 percentage of its engineer team was using Git, in about 8500 commits and 1760 Windows builds per day. [ 53 ] In June 2021, shortly before Microsoft ‘s announcement of Windows 11, Microsoft updated their lifecycle policy pages for Windows 10, revealing that support for their last release of Windows 10 will be October 14, 2025. [ 54 ] [ 55 ]

Windows 11

On June 24, 2021, Windows 11 was announced as the successor to Windows 10 during a livestream. The new function system was designed to be more user-friendly and apprehensible. It was released on October 5, 2021. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Windows 11 is a dislodge upgrade to some Windows 10 users as of immediately .

Windows 365

In July 2021, Microsoft announced it will start selling subscriptions to virtualized Windows desktops as part of a newly Windows 365 servicing in the keep up calendar month. It is not a standalone version of Microsoft Windows, but a network service that provides access to Windows 10 and Windows 11 built on top of Azure Virtual Desktop. The new serve will allow for cross-platform custom, aiming to make the operational system available for both Apple and Android users. The subscription serve will be accessible through any function system with a world wide web browser. The raw service is an undertake at capitalizing on the growing tendency, fostered during the COVID-19 pandemic, for businesses to adopt a loanblend distant work environment, in which “ employees split their fourth dimension between the office and home ”. As the overhaul will be accessible through web browsers, Microsoft will be able to bypass the need to publish the service through Google Play or the Apple App Store. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] Microsoft announced Windows 365 handiness to business and enterprise customers on August 2, 2021. [ 63 ]

multilingual support

multilingual corroborate has been built into Windows since Windows 3.0. The language for both the keyboard and the interface can be changed through the Region and Language Control Panel. Components for all supported input signal languages, such as Input Method Editors, are mechanically installed during Windows initiation ( in Windows XP and in the first place, files for East asian languages, such as chinese, and right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, may need to be installed individually, besides from the said Control Panel ). Third-party IMEs may besides be installed if a exploiter feels that the provide one is insufficient for their needs. Interface languages for the engage system are free for download, but some languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. Language Interface Packs ( LIPs ) are redistributable and may be downloaded from Microsoft ‘s Download Center and installed for any edition of Windows ( XP or late ) – they translate most, but not all, of the Windows interface, and require a sealed base speech ( the language which Windows primitively shipped with ). This is used for most languages in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the accomplished operational system, are only available for specific editions of Windows ( Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8.1 and RT except Single Language ). They do not require a specific base speech, and are normally used for more popular languages such as french or chinese. These languages can not be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates through the Windows Update service ( except Windows 8 ). The interface lyric of install applications is not affected by changes in the Windows interface linguistic process. The handiness of languages depends on the application developers themselves. Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 introduces a newly Language Control Panel where both the interface and input signal languages can be simultaneously changed, and linguistic process packs, careless of type, can be downloaded from a central location. The personal computer Settings app in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 besides includes a counterpart settings page for this. Changing the interface terminology besides changes the language of preinstalled Windows Store apps ( such as Mail, Maps and News ) and sealed other Microsoft-developed apps ( such as Remote Desktop ). The above limitations for terminology packs are however however in effect, except that full linguistic process packs can be installed for any edition except Single Language, which caters to emerging markets .

Platform support

Windows NT included support for several platforms before the x86 -based personal computer became prevailing in the professional earth. Windows NT 4.0 and its predecessors supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000 ( although some of the platforms implement 64-bit computer science, the OS treated them as 32-bit ). window 2000 dropped support for all platforms, except the third coevals x86 ( known as IA-32 ) or newer in 32-bit mood. The client line of Windows NT family still runs on IA-32 but the Windows Server line ceased supporting this platform with the release of Windows Server 2008 R2. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture ( IA-64 ), Microsoft released newfangled versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same clock time as their mainstream x86 counterparts. Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, released in 2005, is the last Windows customer operating systems to support Itanium. Windows Server cable continues to support this platform until Windows Server 2012 ; Windows Server 2008 R2 is the concluding Windows operating system to support Itanium architecture. On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 x64 Editions to support x86-64 ( or just x64 ), the 64-bit adaptation of x86 architecture. Windows Vista was the first node version of Windows NT to be released simultaneously in IA-32 and x64 editions. x64 is still supported. An edition of Windows 8 known as Windows RT was specifically created for computers with ARM architecture and while ARM is hush used for Windows smartphones with Windows 10, tablets with Windows RT will not be updated. Starting from Windows 10 Fall Creators Update ( version 1709 ) and former includes support for PCs with ARM architecture. [ 64 ] Windows 11 is the first interpretation to drop support for 32-bit hardware. [ 65 ]

Windows CE

Windows CE ( formally known as Windows Embedded Compact ), is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers, like satellite navigation systems and some mobile phones. Windows Embedded Compact is based on its own give kernel, dubbed Windows CE kernel. Microsoft licenses Windows CE to OEMs and device makers. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own drug user interfaces and experiences, while Windows CE provides the technical initiation to do so. Windows CE was used in the Dreamcast along with Sega ‘s own proprietary OS for the console. Windows CE was the core from which Windows Mobile was derived. Its successor, Windows Phone 7, was based on components from both Windows CE 6.0 R3 and Windows CE 7.0. Windows Phone 8 however, is based on the same NT-kernel as Windows 8. Windows Embedded Compact is not to be confused with Windows XP Embedded or Windows NT 4.0 Embedded, modular editions of Windows based on Windows NT kernel .

Xbox OS

Xbox OS is an unofficial identify given to the version of Windows that runs on Xbox consoles. [ 66 ] From Xbox One onwards it is an execution with an emphasis on virtualization ( using Hyper-V ) as it is three operating systems running at once, consisting of the core operate organization, a second implemented for games and a more Windows-like environment for applications. [ 67 ] Microsoft updates Xbox One ‘s OS every month, and these updates can be downloaded from the Xbox Live service to the Xbox and subsequently installed, or by using offline convalescence images downloaded via a personal computer. [ 68 ] It was primitively based on NT 6.2 ( Windows 8 ) kernel, and the latest version runs on an NT 10.0 infrastructure. This system is sometimes referred to as “ Windows 10 on Xbox One ” or “ OneCore ”. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] Xbox One and Xbox Series operating systems besides allow limited ( due to licensing restrictions and testing resources ) backward compatibility with previous generation hardware, [ 71 ] and the Xbox 360 ‘s arrangement is backwards compatible with the master Xbox. [ 72 ]

Version control arrangement

Up to and including every adaptation before Windows 2000, Microsoft used an in-house interpretation command system named Source Library Manager ( SLM ). concisely after Windows 2000 was released, Microsoft switched to a branching of Perforce named Source Depot. [ 73 ] This arrangement was used up until 2017 once the system could n’t keep up with the size of Windows. Microsoft had begun to integrate Git into Team Foundation Server in 2013, but Windows continued to rely on Source Depot. [ citation needed ] The Windows code was divided among 65 different repositories with a kind of virtualization layer to produce incorporate view of all of the code. In 2017 Microsoft announced that it would start using Git, an open informant adaptation control system created by Linus Torvalds and in May 2017 they reported that has completed migration into the Git repository. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 53 ]


Because of its big, decades-long history, however, the Windows codebase is not particularly well suited to the decentralized nature of Linux development that Git was in the first place created to manage. [ citation needed ] Each Git repository contains a dispatch history of all the files, which proved impracticable for Windows developers because cloning the whole depository takes several hours. [ citation needed ] Microsoft has been working on a new project called the Virtual File System for Git ( VFSForGit ) to address these challenges. [ 75 ] In 2021 the VFS for Git has been superseded by Scalar. [ 76 ]

timeline of releases

Windows timeline : Bar chart The Windows family tree

custom share and device sales

Use of the latest adaptation Windows 10 has exceeded Windows 7 globally since early 2018. [ 81 ] For background and laptop computers, according to Net Applications and StatCounter, which track the use of operating systems in devices that are active on the Web, Windows was the most use operating-system family in August 2021, with around 91 % usage share according to Net Applications [ 82 ] and around 76 % use share according to StatCounter. [ 83 ] Including personal computers of all kinds ( for example, desktops, laptops, mobile devices, and game consoles ), Windows OSes accounted for 32.67 % of custom share in August 2021, compared to Android ( highest, at 46.03 % ), iOS ‘s 13.76 %, iPadOS ‘s 2.81 %, and macOS ‘s 2.51 %, according to Net Applications [ 84 ] and 30.73 % of use parcel in August 2021, compared to Android ( highest, at 42.56 % ), iOS/iPadOS ‘s 16.53 %, and macOS ‘s 6.51 %, according to StatCounter. [ 85 ] Those statistics do not include servers ( including alleged cloud computer science, where Microsoft is known not to be a leader, with Linux used more than Windows ), as net Applications and StatCounter use world wide web browse as a proxy for all use .


Consumer versions of Windows were in the first place designed for ease-of-use on a single-user personal computer without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the beginning. [ 86 ] however, Windows NT and its successors are designed for security ( including on a network ) and multi-user PCs, but were not initially designed with Internet security in mind as much, since, when it was inaugural developed in the early 1990s, Internet use was less prevailing. [ 87 ] These blueprint issues combined with program errors ( e.g. buffer overflows ) and the popularity of Windows means that it is a frequent aim of computer worm and virus writers. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier ‘s Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 modern viruses and worms in the previous six months. [ 88 ] In 2005, Kaspersky Lab found around 11,000 malicious programs – viruses, Trojans, back-doors, and exploits written for Windows. [ 89 ] Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a calendar month ( normally the second Tuesday of the calendar month ), although critical updates are made available at short intervals when necessary. [ 90 ] In versions of Windows after and including Windows 2000 SP3 and Windows XP, updates can be mechanically downloaded and installed if the exploiter selects to do thus. As a resultant role, Service Pack 2 for Windows XP, vitamin a well as Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2003, were installed by users more quickly than it differently might have been. [ 91 ] While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple users, they had no concept of access privileges, and did not allow coincident access ; and so were not true multi-user operating systems. In addition, they implemented entirely partial memory protective covering. They were accordingly widely criticised for miss of security. The Windows NT series of operating systems, by contrast, are truthful multi-user, and follow through absolute memory security. however, a batch of the advantages of being a true multi-user operate system were nullified by the fact that, anterior to Windows Vista, the beginning user score created during the setup process was an administrator account, which was besides the default for new accounts. Though Windows XP did have limited accounts, the majority of home users did not change to an account type with fewer rights – partially due to the total of programs which unnecessarily required administrator rights – and so most family users ran as administrator all the time. Windows Vista changes this [ 92 ] by introducing a prerogative elevation system called User Account Control. When logging in as a standard exploiter, a logon seance is created and a token containing merely the most basic privileges is assigned. In this way, the new logon seance is incapable of making changes that would affect the integral system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens are assigned. The foremost nominal contains all privileges typically awarded to an administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user would receive. User applications, including the Windows shell, are then started with the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment tied under an Administrator account. When an application requests higher privileges or “ Run as administrator ” is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given ( including administrator credentials if the account requesting the acme is not a member of the administrators group ), start the procedure using the unrestricted keepsake. [ 93 ] Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber war, [ 94 ] such as the ability to compromise operating systems such as Microsoft Windows. [ 95 ] In August 2019, calculator experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability, CVE – 2019-0708, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program ‘s Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of outback code execution, may nowadays include related flaws, jointly named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions ( i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions ) angstrom well. [ 96 ] In addition, experts reported a Microsoft security vulnerability, CVE – 2019-1162, based on bequest code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon ( ctfmon.exe ), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP translation to the most recent Windows 10 versions ; a patch to correct the flaw is presently available. [ 97 ]

file permissions

All Windows versions from Windows NT 3 have been based on a file system license system referred to as AGDLP ( Accounts, Global, Domain Local, Permissions ) in which file permissions are applied to the file/folder in the shape of a ‘local group ‘ which then has other ‘global groups ‘ as members. These ball-shaped groups then hold other groups or users depending on different Windows versions used. This system varies from early seller products such as Linux and NetWare due to the ‘static ‘ allotment of permission being applied directly to the file or booklet. however using this process of AGLP/AGDLP/AGUDLP allows a small numeral of electrostatic permissions to be applied and allows for slowly changes to the account groups without reapplying the file permissions on the files and folders .

alternative implementations

Owing to the function system ‘s popularity, a number of applications have been released that aim to provide compatibility with Windows applications, either as a compatibility layer for another operating system, or as a standalone system that can run software written for Windows out of the box. These include :

See besides


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