This article is about numismatics as an academic discipline. For collecting, see Coin collecting Numismatics is the discipline or solicitation of currentness, including coins, tokens, newspaper money, medals and relate objects. Specialists, known as numismatists, are much characterized as students or collectors of coins, but the discipline besides includes the broader study of money and other means of payment used to resolve debts and exchange goods.
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The earliest forms of money used by peoples is referred to as “ Odd and Curious ”, but the practice of other goods in barter substitution is excluded, evening where used as a circulate currency ( for example, cigarettes in prison ). As an model, the Kyrgyz people use horses as the principal currency unit, and gave small change in lambskins ; [ 1 ] the lambskins may be desirable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowrie shells, valued metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems .
etymology [edit ]
first attested in english 1829, the give voice numismatics comes from the adjective numismatic, meaning “ of coins ”. It was borrowed in 1792 from french numismatiques, itself a ancestry from late Latin numismatis, possessive of numisma, a version of nomisma meaning “ coin ”. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Nomisma is a latinisation of the greek νόμισμα ( nomisma ) which means “ current coin/custom ”, [ 4 ] which derives from νομίζειν ( nomizein ), “ to hold or own as a custom or custom, to use customarily ”, [ 5 ] in turn from νόμος ( nomos ), “ usage, custom ”, [ 6 ] ultimately from νέμειν ( nemein ), “ to dispense, divide, assign, keep, hold ”. [ 7 ]
history of money [edit ]
Throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a barely commodity, although it does not have to be. many materials have been used to form money, from naturally scarce valued metals and cowrie shells through cigarettes to entirely artificial money, called decree money, such as banknotes. many complemental currencies use time as a whole of measure, using reciprocal credit account that keeps the balance of money intact. modern money ( and most ancient money besides ) is basically a token – an abstraction. Paper currency is possibly the most common type of forcible money nowadays. however, goods such as gold or eloquent retain many of the necessity properties of money, such as volatility and limited issue. however, these goods are not controlled by one single authority .
history of numismatics [edit ]
Coin collecting may have possibly existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave “ coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings and alien money ” as Saturnalia gifts. [ 8 ] Petrarch, who wrote in a letter that he was often approached by vinediggers with previous coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance collector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355. The first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus ( 1514 ) by Guillaume Budé. [ 9 ] During the early Renaissance ancient coins were collected by european royalty and nobility. Collectors of coins were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg who started the Berlin coin cabinet and Henry IV of France to name a few. Numismatics is called the “ Hobby of Kings ”, due to its most esteemed founders. professional societies organised in the nineteenth hundred. The Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and immediately began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle. The american Numismatic Society was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics in 1866. In 1931 the british Academy launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage. The first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the british Isles was published in 1958. In the twentieth hundred coins gained recognition as archaeological objects, scholars such as Guido Bruck of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna realized their value in providing a temporal context and the trouble that curators faced when identifying wear coins using classical literature. After World War II in Germany a project, Fundmünzen der Antike ( Coin finds of the Classical Period ) was launched, to register every mint found within Germany. This mind found successors in many countries. In the United States, the US mint established a coin cabinet in 1838 when foreman coiner Adam Eckfeldt donated his personal collection. [ 10 ] William E. Du Bois ‘ Pledges of History… ( 1846 ) describes the cabinet.
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C. Wyllys Betts ‘ American colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals ( 1894 ) set the basis for the study of American historical medals. Helen Wang ‘s “ A short history of chinese numismatics in european languages ” ( 2012-2013 ) gives an delineate history of western countries ‘ understand of chinese numismatics. [ 11 ] Lyce Jankowski ‘s Les amis des monnaies is an in-depth study of chinese numismatics in China in the nineteenth hundred. [ 12 ]
modern numismatics [edit ]
advanced numismatics is the study of the coins of the mid-17th hundred forth, the time period of machine-struck coins. [ 13 ] Their study serves more the motivation of collectors than historians and it is more much successfully pursued by amateur aficionados than by professional scholars. The focus of modern numismatics lies frequently in the research of output and use of money in historical context using mint or other records in orderliness to determine the relative rarity of the coins they study. Varieties, mint-made errors, the results of liberal die wear, mintage figures and even the sociopolitical context of coin mintings are besides matters of interest .
Subfields [edit ]
Exonumia ( UK English : Paranumismatica ) [ 14 ] is the report of coin -like objects such as token coins and medals, and early items used in place of legal currency or for memorial. This includes elongate coins, encased coins, memento medallions, tags, badges, counterstamped coins, wooden nickels, recognition cards, and other similar items. It is related to numismatics proper ( concerned with coins which have been legal tender ), and many coin collectors are besides exonumists. Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. It is believed that people have been collecting newspaper money for american samoa long as it has been in use. however, people only started collecting paper money systematically in Germany in the 1920s, peculiarly the Serienscheine ( Series notes ) Notgeld. The turning point occurred in the 1970s, when notaphily was established as a disjoined area by collectors. At the like clock, some developed countries such as the United States, Germany and France began publishing their respective national catalogues of paper money, which represented major points of reference point literature .
Alexander the Great tetradrachm from the Temnos Mint circa 188-170 BC Scripophily is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds. It is an area of collecting due to both the implicit in beauty of some historic documents american samoa well as the interest historic context of each document. Some broth certificates are excellent examples of engraving. occasionally, an honest-to-god neckcloth document will be found that still has value as a stock in a successor company .
The exemplar of one of Alexander the Great ‘s coin [edit ]
The model of the silver tetradrachm found in Byblos ( ca 330-300 bc. ) is indicative of macedonian influence. Alexander ‘s coin ( To nomisma Alexandrou ) is of the type of the steer of beardless Heracles, with an aquiline nose on the right, represented with a headdress of leo ‘s head and of an aetophore Zeus ( holding an eagle ) on the reverse, enthroned with a scepter in his left hand. [ 15 ] The type of this tetradrachm has a very assertive Macedonian and Greek character. The choice of representations is symbolic : the reminder of his divine ancestry and his heroic character. The representation of the Olympian god and the greek hero besides makes it possible to spread the Greco-Macedonian culture and in detail religious cults. The ash grey mint inaugurated by Alexander in -333 showed representations which, while privileging the Greco-Macedonian aspect of the divinites, did not appear to the Orientals as wholly extraneous ( assimilated to the Baals deities ). [ 16 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- The dictionary definition of numismatics at Wiktionary
- Media related to Numismatics at Wikimedia Commons