iCloud is a cloud storage and overcast computing service [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] from Apple Inc. launched on October 12, 2011. As of 2018, the service had an estimated 850 million users, up from 782 million users in 2016. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] iCloud enables users to store data such as documents, photos, and music on distant servers for download to iOS, macOS or Windows devices, to plowshare and send data to other users, and to manage their Apple devices if lost or stolen. iCloud besides provides the means to wirelessly back up io devices directly to iCloud, alternatively of being reliant on manual backups to a host Mac or Windows computer using iTunes. Service users are besides able to share photos, music, and games immediately by linking accounts via AirDrop radio.
Reading: iCloud – Wikipedia
iCloud replaced Apple ‘s MobileMe service, [ 4 ] acting as a datum synchronize center for e-mail, contacts, calendars, bookmarks, notes, reminders ( disturbance lists ), iWork documents, photos, and other data. Apple has eleven company owned and operated datum centers supporting iCloud services. The party has six data centers in the United States, two in Denmark, and three in China. [ 8 ] One of Apple ‘s original iCloud data centers is located in Maiden, North Carolina, US. [ 9 ] Beginning in 2011, iCloud is based on Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure ( Apple iOS Security white paper published in 2014, Apple acknowledged that code io files are stored in Amazon S3 and Microsoft Azure [ 10 ] ). In 2016, Apple signed a conduct with Google to use Google Cloud Platform for some iCloud services. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] In October 2016, Bloomberg reported that Apple was working on project Pie which aims to improve the speed and experience of Apple ‘s on-line services by being operated more directly by Apple. [ 14 ] In June 2021, Apple introduced iCloud+, which introduced Private Relay, Hide My Email and custom e-mail domains to paid users of the services, vitamin a well as an unlimited storehouse limit for television from television camera added through HomeKit Secure Video .
system requirements [edit ]
iCloud account universe requires either an io device running io 5 or late or a Mac running OS X Lion v10.7.5 or belated, [ 15 ] ampere well as an internet connection and a compatible vane browser. besides, certain features have their own minimum requirements of OS versions. For case, using iCloud Photo Sharing requires OS X Mavericks v10.9 or above on a Mac. [ 16 ] Devices running older versions of macOS ( before Mavericks ) or io ( below 7 ) may be ineffective to sign into iCloud after the iCloud password has been changed : the merely solution for this emergence is to upgrade the OS, which may be impossible on a device that does not meet the newer OS minimum requirements. [ 17 ] Synchronizing with a personal computer requires Windows 7 or late and using the iCloud Control Panel, and optionally Outlook 2007 or later or the built-in Windows 10 Mail and Calendar apps to sync Calendar, Contacts, and Reminders. [ 18 ] Users must own an Apple device to set up iCloud for Windows. synchronization of bookmarks requires Safari 5.1.1 or later on macOS, and Internet Explorer 9, Firefox 22 or Google Chrome 28 or late on Windows. [ 19 ] MobileMe report users could move their accounts to an iCloud account, keeping the like history details. [ 20 ]
history [edit ]
iCloud was announced on June 6, 2011, [ 21 ] at the 2011 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference ( WWDC ). Apple announced that MobileMe would be discontinued after June 30, 2012, with anyone who had an bill before the introduction of iCloud having their MobileMe service extended to that date, unblock of charge. [ 22 ] The official web site, www.icloud.com, went live in early August for Apple Developers. On October 12, 2011, iCloud became available to use via an iTunes update. [ 23 ] iCloud had 20 million users in less than a workweek after launch. [ 24 ] The iCloud.com world and registered trademark were bought from a swedish company called Xcerion, who rebranded their service to CloudMe. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] Apple now controls major domains like iCloud.de, iCloud.fr and iCloud.es. [ 28 ] A class action lawsuit by customers dysphoric over the transition from MobileMe to iCloud was filed in early-May 2012. [ 29 ] In June 2019, iCloud was introduced to Windows 10 via the Microsoft Store. [ 30 ] On June 7, 2021, Apple introduced an upgrade version of iCloud for users who paid for extra storage called iCloud+ during their 2021 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference. iCloud+ includes Private Relay, which allowed users to browse Safari without being tracked, Hide My Email, which allows users to sign up to websites and other apps with a private e-mail address that forwarded messages to their main inbox, and updates to HomeKit Secure Video which allows iCloud+ users to add an inexhaustible number of HomeKit cameras that do not count against the storage limit .
announcement [edit ]
The first official mention of iCloud from Apple came on May 31, 2011, when a press acquittance [ 31 ] announced that it would demonstrate the military service at the WWDC on June 6, 2011. A banner hang at the Moscone Center for WWDC revealed the iCloud logo five days before the official launch. [ 32 ] At the WWDC 2011 tonic speech, Steve Jobs ( in one of his last populace appearances ) announced iCloud will replace MobileMe services and that the basic iCloud service will be free of bang. [ 33 ]
Features [edit ]
The cloud-based system allows users to store heterogeneous music, photograph, applications, documents, bookmarks, reminders, backups, notes, Apple Books, and contacts and provides a platform for Apple ‘s e-mail servers and calendars. Third-party io and macOS app developers can implement iCloud functionality in their apps through the iCloud API. [ 34 ]
Backup and restore [edit ]
iCloud allows users to back up the settings and data on io devices running io 5 or late. [ 35 ] Data backed up includes photos and videos in the Camera Roll, device settings, app data, messages ( iMessage, SMS, and MMS ), ringtones, and Visual Voicemails. [ 36 ] Backups occur daily when the device is locked and connected to Wi-Fi and a ability informant. In case of a malfunction of any Apple device, during the restoration serve, iCloud offers to restore all data along with App data only if the device was synced to iCloud and backed up .
back to My Mac [edit ]
back to My Mac, besides previously part of MobileMe, is now part of iCloud. [ 37 ] As earlier, this serve allows users to log in remotely to other computers that have Back to My Mac enabled and are configured with the same Apple ID. On August 9, 2018, Apple updated a confirm document to note that Back to My Mac would not be character of the approaching macOS Mojave ( 10.14 ) free .
electronic mail [edit ]
An iCloud account can include an e-mail account, much like MobileMe, .Mac, and iTools did previously. however, unlike MobileMe and its former iterations, the electronic mail account is an optional region of an iCloud score, in that the user can choose to use a non-iCloud e-mail address as their iCloud Apple ID. The e-mail account can be accessed using any criterion IMAP-compatible electronic mail client, a well as via web browser at iCloud.com. additionally, on an io device, iCloud e-mail is push-enabled. Users who converted existing MobileMe accounts to iCloud accounts kept their existing “ @ me.com ” electronic mail addresses ; users whose accounts pre-dated MobileMe and had both me.com and mac.com e-mail addresses kept both. equally good as retaining their former addresses, users besides received the matching “ @ icloud.com ” address. As there is only one postbox per account, all messages sent to any of a user ‘s iCloud e-mail addresses end up in the same inbox .
Find My Friends [edit ]
Find My iPhone My Friends was added to iCloud alongside the launch of io 5, allowing users to share their stream location with their friends or family. iOS 6 add location-based alerts to notify the exploiter when a device arrives at a certain location. [ 38 ] On io 9 and 10, Find My Friends is built into io and can not be removed. From io 11 onwards it is included, but can be deleted and then subsequently reinstalled from the io App Store. In October 2015, Find My Friends was added to iCloud.com to view early “ friends ” locations. [ 39 ]
Find My iPhone [edit ]
Find My iPhone, once separate of MobileMe, allows users to track the location of their io device or Mac. A exploiter can see the device ‘s estimate location on a map ( along with a circle showing the spoke depicting the margin of error ), display a message and/or play a sound on the device ( even if it is set to silent ), change the password on the device, and remotely erase its contents. [ 40 ] The feature of speech was inaugural announced on June 10, 2009, and was included in the io 3.0 software update as a feature for paying MobileMe users. [ 41 ] Find My iPhone was made dislodge of charge with the io 4.2.1 software update on November 22, 2010, but lone for devices introduced in 2010. [ 42 ] An io app was besides released by Apple on June 18, 2010, which allows users to locate their device from other io devices running io 4 or later software. In io 5, Find My iPhone was continued as a feature for iCloud. io 6 introduced Lost Mode, a new feature that allows the exploiter to mark a device as “ lost ”, making it easier to protect and find. The sport besides allows person that finds the exploiter ‘s lost iPhone to call the drug user directly without unlocking it. similar earphone finder services under assorted names are available for other families of smartphones. Activation Lock was introduced in 2013 with io 7. It is integrated with iCloud and Find My iPhone feature. This newly sport locks the energizing of any iPhone, iPad, iPod allude or Apple watch which has been restored in either DFU or Recovery modality without first disabling the Find My iPhone feature. once repair is completed, the device will ask for the Apple ID and password that has been previously associated with it, to proceed with energizing, ultimately preventing any steal device from being functional. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] As of io 9, Find my iPhone is a built-in app, and frankincense can not be removed. [ 46 ] In io and iPadOS 13, both Find my iPhone and Find My Friends have been merged into Find My .
Find My [edit ]
Find My replaced Find my iPhone and Find My Friends, merging the two apps in io and iPadOS 14 .
iCloud Keychain [edit ]
iCloud Keychain is a password coach developed by Apple that synchronize passwords across devices and suggests batten ones when creating new accounts. [ 47 ] iCloud Keychain backups provide different security system guarantees than traditional iCloud stand-in. This is because iCloud Keychain uses “ end-to-end encoding “, meaning that iCloud Keychain backups are designed so that the provider does not have access to unencrypted data. This is accomplished through the manipulation of a novel “ key vault ” design based on a Hardware Security Module located in Apple ‘s data centers. [ 48 ]
iTunes Match [edit ]
iTunes Match debuted on November 14, 2011. It was initially available to US users alone. [ 49 ] For an annual fee, customers can scan and match tracks in their iTunes music library, including tracks copied from CDs or other sources, with tracks in the iTunes Store, so customers do not have to repurchase said tracks. Customers may download up to 100,000 tracks in 256 kbit/s DRM -free AAC file format that matches tracks in any support audio file formats in customers ‘ iTunes libraries, including ALAC and MP3. Customers besides have the choice to keep their master copies stored on their computers or have them replaced by copies from the iTunes Store. [ 50 ] Any music not available in the iTunes Store is uploaded for download onto customers ‘ early supported devices and computers ; doing this will not take storehouse from the customers ‘ iCloud ‘s memory allowance. Any such tracks stored in the higher quality lossless sound recording ALAC, or original decompress PCM formats, WAV and AIFF, are transcoded to 256 kbit/s DRM-free AAC format before uploading to the customers ‘ iCloud storage report, leaving the original higher quality local files in their original format. [ 51 ]
Read more: Ciphertext indistinguishability – Wikipedia
If a drug user stops paying for the iTunes Match service, all copies of the DRM-free AAC iTunes Store versions of tracks that have already been downloaded onto any device can be kept, [ 52 ] [ 53 ] whether on io devices or computers. [ 52 ] From io 7 and OS X Mavericks, the iTunes Radio function will be available across devices, including integration with the Music app, both on portable io devices and Apple TV ( 2nd genesis onwards ), vitamin a well as inside the iTunes app on Macintosh and Windows computers. It will be included in an ad-free version for subscribers to the iTunes Match service and is presently [ when? ] available lone in the US and Australia [ 54 ] The streaming Genius shuffle is not available in current [ when? ] versions of io but is available in iTunes on the Mac. On January 28, 2016, ad-free iTunes Radio was discontinued and is therefore no longer part of iTunes Match. As of March 26, 2014, iTunes Match is available in 116 countries, while iTunes in the Cloud is available in 155 countries. [ 55 ]
iWork for iCloud [edit ]
During the 2013 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference ( WWDC ) keynote speech, iWork for iCloud was announced for spill at the like time as the future interpretation of the app versions of iWork late in the year. The three apps for both io and macOS that shape Apple ‘s iWork suite ( Pages, Numbers, and Keynote ), will be made available on a web interface ( named as Pages for iCloud, Numbers for iCloud, and Keynote for iCloud respectively ), and accessed via the iCloud web site under each user ‘s iCloud Apple ID login. They will besides sync with the exploiter ‘s io and macOS versions of the app, should they have them, again via their iCloud Apple ID. This allows the drug user to edit and create documents on the web, using one of the digest browsers : Safari, Chrome, and Microsoft Edge. [ 56 ] It besides means that Microsoft Windows users now have access to these native –previously merely Apple device– document edit tools, via the web interface .
Photo Stream [edit ]
Photo Stream is a service supplied with the basic iCloud service which allows users to store the most holocene 1,000 photos on the iCloud servers for up to 30 days free of charge. When a photograph is taken on a device with Photo Stream enabled, it is automatically upload to the iCloud servers. From there, it becomes available for viewing and saving on the rest of the exploiter ‘s Photo Stream-enabled devices. The photograph is mechanically removed from the waiter after 30 days or when it becomes photograph number 1,001 in the drug user ‘s stream. Photo Stream installed on a Mac or Windows desktop computer includes an choice to have all photos permanently saved on that device. The service is besides integrated with Apple television receiver, allowing users to view their recent photos wirelessly on their HDTV. [ 57 ]
iCloud Photos [edit ]
iCloud Photos is a feature on io 8.1 or former and OS X Yosemite ( version 10.10 ) or by and by, plus vane app access. The military service stores all of the drug user ‘s photos, maintaining their original resolution and metadata. Users can access their iCloud Photos on supported devices via the modern Photos app when available or via the iCloud Photos web app at iCloud.com, which helps limit the sum of local memory each device needs to use to store photos ( peculiarly those with smaller memory capacities ) by storing lower-resolution versions on the device, with the drug user having the choice to keep some/all stored locally at a higher resolution .
storage [edit ]
Since its initiation in 2011, each account has 5 GB of release repositing for owners of either an io device using io 5.x or subsequently, or a Mac using OS X Lion 10.7 or late. Users can pay monthly for extra storage for a total of 50 GB, 200 GB or 2 TB. The amount of storage is shared across all devices per iCloud Apple ID. [ 58 ] respective native features of iCloud habit each exploiter ‘s iCloud storage allowance, specifically, Backup and repair, and electronic mail, Contacts, and Calendars. On Macs, users can besides store most filetypes into iCloud folders of their choose, rather than only storing them locally on the machine. While Photo Stream uses the iCloud servers, use does not come out of the exploiter ‘s iCloud repositing allowance. This is besides truthful for iTunes Match music content, tied for music that is not sold in the iTunes Store and which gets upload into iCloud storage, it does not count against the user ‘s allowance. other apps can optionally integrate app memory out of the drug user ‘s iCloud storage allowance. not all of a exploiter ‘s content counts as region of their iCloud storehouse allowance. Apple can keep a permanent track of every purchase a user makes under their Apple ID account, and by associating each while of content with the drug user, it means only one copy of every Store detail is needed to be kept on Apple ‘s servers. For items bought from the iTunes Store ( music, music videos, movies, television shows ), Apple Books Store ( books ), or App Store ( io apps ), this uses a service Apple call iTunes in the Cloud, allowing the exploiter to mechanically, or manually if preferred, re-download any of their former purchases on to a Mac, personal computer, or io device. [ 55 ] Downloaded ( or streamed, provided the drug user is connected to the Internet ) iTunes Store capacity can be used across all these devices, however, while Apple Books Store and App Store content can be downloaded to Macs and PCs for syncing to iOS devices, only io and Mac devices ( and their respective apps ) can be used to read the books. [ 59 ] Similarly, macOS apps purchased from the Mac App Store are besides linked to the Apple ID they were purchased through and can be downloaded to any Mac using the lapp Apple ID. besides, when a drug user registers any newly device, all previously bought Store content can be downloaded from the Store servers or non-Store content from the iCloud servers. [ 60 ] Audiobooks and their metadata fields from non-Apple buy sources are not synced across devices ( macOS or io ) inside the Apple Books apps, and nor does the metadata from non-Apple purchased books ( in Ebook or PDF format ). There remains a syncing mismatch on some types of media, between Apple-purchased capacity and non-Apple buy contented that remains in effect for iCloud users .
iCloud drive [edit ]
iCloud Drive is iCloud ‘s file host serve, that synchronize files across devices running io 8, OS X Yosemite ( adaptation 10.10 ), or Windows 7 or late, plus on-line world wide web app access via iCloud.com. Users can store any kind of file ( including photos, videos, documents, music, and other apps ‘ data ) in iCloud Drive and access it on any Mac, iPad, iPhone, ipod Touch, or Windows PC, with any unmarried file being a maximum of 50 GB in file size ( earlier it was 15 GB ). This allows users to start their make on one device and continue on another device. [ 61 ] By default option, users still get 5 GB of storage for free as previously, but the expandable storage plans available have increased in size ( current tiers : 50 GB, 200 GB, and 2 TB ), and altered to monthly subscription payment options from the annually ones offered under the former MobileMe service. In io 11, iCloud Drive has been integrated into the new Files app that gives users entree to all their cloud and local on-device repositing, which replaced the standalone iCloud Drive app. [ 62 ] [ 63 ]
Messages on iCloud [edit ]
Messages on iCloud is a feature of speech on io 11.4 and macOS High Sierra 10.13.5 which keeps all of a user ‘s iMessages and SMS text stored in the cloud. [ 64 ]
private relay [edit ]
secret Relay, an iCloud+ feature presently on beta, allows users to browse Safari privately, exchangeable to a virtual private net. [ 65 ] According to Apple, “ regulative reasons ” prevent the company from launching Private Relay in China, Belarus, Russia, Colombia, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkmenistan, Uganda, and the Philippines. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] up to 5 % of Wikipedia editors globally could be negatively affected by using Private Relay, because Wikipedia blocks ranges of IP addresses to combat page vandalism [ 68 ]
Hide My Email [edit ]
Hide My Email is available to iCloud+ users and allows users in Mail and Safari to generate impermanent Apple e-mail addresses which advancing messages to their chief e-mail savoir-faire. [ 65 ]
Custom electronic mail sphere [edit ]
Custom e-mail domains, an iCloud+ feature, allows users to personalize their electronic mail cover with a custom world mention and invite family members to use the lapp knowledge domain with their iCloud Mail accounts. [ 65 ]
criticism [edit ]
iCloud has been criticized by third-party developers for bugs that make some features about unserviceable under earlier versions of io and macOS, specifically the use of Core Data in iCloud, for storing and syncing larger amounts of data between third-party apps on users ‘ devices. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] Third-party developers have reported that the changes implemented in the release of io 7 and OS X Mavericks ( version 10.9 ) address these iCloud criticisms. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]
name dispute [edit ]
iCloud Communications, a telecommunications ship’s company in Arizona, sued Apple in June 2011 for trademark violation shortly after Apple announced iCloud. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] The lawsuit was filed in the US District Court of Arizona and demanded that Apple stop using the iCloud name and pay unspecified monetary damages. iCloud Communications changed its name to Clear Digital Communications in August 2011 and dropped its lawsuit against Apple curtly thereafter. [ 76 ]
privacy [edit ]
Apple ‘s iCloud service, including iCloud Drive and io device backups, does not provide end-to-end encoding, besides known as client-side encoding, [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ] and without end-to-end encoding, users ‘ information is left unbarred because it remains easily accessible to unauthorized persons. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ] Furthermore, Apple reserves the properly to and admits to scanning user data for illegal contented. [ 84 ] In August 2014, it was rumored that hackers had discovered an overwork involving the Find My iPhone service, which potentially allowed an attacker to brute-force a user ‘s Apple ID and access their iCloud data. The feat was later incorrectly rumored to have been used as part of an August 2014 escape of a big number of secret, nude photos of celebrities that had been synced to their iCloud storage from their iPhone. Apple confirmed that it was working with law enforcement agencies to investigate the leak. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ 87 ] Apple subsequently denied that the iCloud military service itself or the alleged exploit was creditworthy for the leak, asserting that the leaks were the leave of a very target phishing attack against the celebrities. [ 88 ] On September 13, 2014 Tim Cook, while being interviewed by Charlie Rose, stated on television camera that the fame leaks were not an iCloud overwork at all, but rather the celebrities had been phished by very target phishing to trick them out of their login credentials. [ 89 ] Apple has been scanning iCloud Mail for CSAM data starting 2019. [ 90 ] On August 5, 2021, Apple confirmed it has planned to started scanning iCloud Photos for the like reason. [ 91 ] After receiving a public recoil against Apple scanning private photos, Apple announced it will collect further input before releasing new functionality. [ 92 ]
China [edit ]
In February 2018, Apple announced that iCloud users in China would have their data, including encoding data, on servers called “ 云上贵州 ” located in the area to comply with local anesthetic regulations. This raised concerns from human rights activists who claim that it may be used to track dissidents. [ 93 ] In response, CEO Tim Cook stated that Apple encoding was “ the same in every country in the world, ” including China. [ 94 ] On June 7, 2021, during the WWDC event, Apple announced that iCloud ‘s modern ‘private relay ‘ feature would not work in China for regulative reasons. [ 95 ]