iPhone – Wikipedia

Line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc .
This article is about the line of smartphones by Apple. For the master iPhone, see iPhone ( 1st generation ). For other different types of iPhones and other uses, see iPhone ( disambiguation )
The iPhone is a telephone line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. These devices use Apple ‘s io fluid operating system. The first-generation iPhone was announced by then-Apple CEO Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007. Since then, Apple has per annum released new iPhone models and io updates. As of November 1, 2018, more than 2.2 billion iPhones had been sold.

The iPhone has a drug user interface built around a multi-touch screen. It connects to cellular networks or Wi-Fi, and can make calls, browse the web, take pictures, act music and mail and receive emails and textbook messages. Since the iPhone ‘s establish promote features have been added, including larger screen sizes, shooting video, waterproofing, the ability to install third-party fluid apps through an app store, and many approachability features. Up to iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, iPhones used a layout with a one clitoris on the front dialog box that returns the drug user to the home riddle. Since iPhone X, iPhone models have switched to a closely bezel -less front screen design with app switching activated by gesture recognition. The iPhone is one of the two largest smartphone chopine in the world aboard Android, forming a bombastic character of the lavishness market. The iPhone has generated large profits for Apple, making it one of the worldly concern ‘s most valuable publicly traded companies. The first-generation iPhone was described as “ rotatory ” and a “ game-changer ” for the mobile call diligence and subsequent models have besides garnered praise. The iPhone has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor, and with creating a boastfully commercialize for smartphone apps, or “ app economy “. As of January 2017, Apple ‘s App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications for the iPhone .

history and handiness

Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees led by hardware engineer Tony Fadell, software engineer Scott Forstall and invention engineer Sir Jonathan Ive [ 15 ] to work on the highly confidential “ project Purple ”. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original stress off from a tablet ( which Apple finally revisited in the form of the iPad ) towards a telephone. [ 18 ] Apple created the device during a close collaboration with Cingular Wireless ( which became AT & T Mobility ) at the time—at an estimated growth cost of US $ 150 million over thirty months. [ 19 ] According to Steve Jobs, the “ iodine ” word in “ iMac ” ( and consequently “ ipod ”, “ iPhone ” and “ iPad ” ) stands for internet, individual, instruct, inform, and inspire. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Apple rejected the “ design by committee “ border on that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1 ‘s firmware limited storehouse to merely 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple ‘s ipod nano. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Cingular gave Apple the shore leave to develop the iPhone ‘s hardware and software in-house [ 24 ] [ 25 ] and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly serve tax income ( until the iPhone 3G ), [ 26 ] in exchange for four years of exclusive U.S. sales, until 2011. [ 27 ] Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 conventionality at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. [ 28 ] The two initial models, a 4 GB [ a ] model priced at US $ 499 and an 8 GB model at US $ 599 ( both requiring a biennial contract ), went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 prime minister local anesthetic time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores countrywide. [ 29 ] The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the ‘Jesus call ‘. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] Following this successful publish in the US, the inaugural generation iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008 .


iPhone available since its original free


iPhone available since the exhaust of iPhone 3G


Coming soon Worldwide iPhone handiness : On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six. [ 32 ] Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories. [ 33 ] Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it late in June, July, and August, starting with the US, Canada and major european countries on June 19. many manque users objected to the iPhone ‘s price, [ 34 ] and 40 % of users had household incomes over US $ 100,000. [ 35 ]
first iPhone on display under glass at the January 2007 Macworld display The back of the original first-generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black credit card accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a entire fictile back to increase the force of the GSM bespeak. [ 36 ] The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16 GB model. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity. The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and bet on with a stainless steel edge that serves as the antenna. It was at foremost available in black ; the white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months late. Users of the iPhone 4 reported dropped/disconnected telephone calls when holding their phones in a certain way. This became known as antennagate. [ 37 ] On January 11, 2011, Verizon announced during a media event that it had reached an agreement with Apple and would begin selling a CDMA iPhone 4. Verizon said it would be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] In February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.5 % of all iPhone ad impressions in the U.S. on Millennial Media ‘s mobile ad network. [ 40 ] From 2007 to 2011, Apple spent $ 647 million on advertise for the iPhone in the US. [ 17 ] On September 27, Apple sent invitations for a weight-lift event to be held October 4, 2011, at 10:00 am at the Cupertino headquarter to announce details of the following generation iPhone, which turned out to be iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the foremost 24 hours after its let go of in October 2011. [ 41 ] Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and its high betray price, Apple became the largest mobile handset seller in the world by gross, in 2011, surpassing long-time drawing card Nokia. [ 42 ] American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S on October 19, 2011. [ 43 ] In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings always, with 53 % of its tax income coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average deal monetary value of about $ 660. The average sell price has remained fairly changeless for most of the earphone ‘s life, hovering between $ 622 and $ 660. [ 44 ] The production price of the iPhone 4S was estimated by IHS iSuppli, in October 2011, to be $ 188, $ 207 and $ 245, for the 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB models, respectively. [ 45 ] Labor costs are estimated at between $ 12.50 and $ 30 per unit, with workers on the iPhone assembly credit line making $ 1.78 an hour. [ 46 ] In February 2012, ComScore reported that 12.4 % of U.S. mobile subscribers used an iPhone. [ 47 ] By 2009, approximately 6.4 million iPhones were active in the U.S. entirely. [ 35 ] On September 12, 2012, Apple announced the iPhone 5. It has a 4 inches ( 100 millimeter ) display, up from its predecessors ‘ 3.5 inches ( 89 millimeter ) riddle. The device comes with the same 326 pixels per edge found in the iPhone 4 and 4S. The iPhone 5 has the SoC A6 processor, the chip is 22 % smaller than the iPhone 4S ‘ A5 and is doubly as fast, doubling the graphics performance of its harbinger. The device is 18 % thinner than the iPhone 4S, measuring 7.6 millimetres ( 0.3 in ), and is 20 % lighter at 112 grams ( 4 oz ). On July 6, 2013, it was reported that Apple was in talks with Korean mobile aircraft carrier SK Telecom to release the adjacent generation iPhone with LTE Advanced technology. [ 48 ] On July 22, 2013, the company ‘s suppliers said that Apple is testing out larger screens for the iPhone and iPad. “ Apple has asked for prototype smartphone screens larger than 4 inches ( 100 millimeter ) and has besides asked for screen designs for a newly pill device measuring slenderly less than 13 inches ( 330 millimeter ) diagonally, they said. ” [ 49 ] On September 10, 2013, Apple unveiled two new iPhone models during a weigh event in Cupertino. The iPhone 5C, a mid-range-priced version of the handset that is designed to increase approachability due to its monetary value is available in five colors ( green, blue, chicken, pink, and egg white ) and is made of plastic. The iPhone 5S comes in three colors ( black, white, and amber ) and the base clitoris is replaced with a fingerprint scanner ( Touch ID ). Both phones shipped on September 20, 2013. [ 50 ] On September 9, 2014, Apple revealed the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus at an event in Cupertino. Both devices had a larger screen than their predecessor, at 4.7 inches ( 120 millimeter ) and 5.5 inches ( 140 millimeter ) respectively. [ 51 ] After the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus was released, some users started complaining about the 6 and 6 Plus bending from normal function. This drift became known as “ Bendgate ”, [ 52 ] which late started “ touch Disease. ” however, they released the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, a more bend-resistant iPhone than the 6 and 6 Plus, to solve this return. On September 7, 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which added water system and dust immunity, improved system and graphics performance, a new dual-camera apparatus on the Plus model, newfangled discolor options, and featured the removal of the 3.5 millimeter earphone jack from the iPhone. [ 53 ] On September 12, 2017, Apple formally unveiled the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which features a new glass design, camera improvements, a True Tone display, radio receiver charge, and better system performance. It besides unveiled the iPhone X, which features a near bezel-less purpose, a facial recognition sport dubbed “ Face ID ” with facial track used for Animojis, an OLED screen with the highest pixel density on an iPhone, a new telephotograph lens which works better in depleted light conditions, and improved cameras for AR. [ 54 ] On September 12, 2018, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone XS, XS Max [ 55 ] and XR [ 56 ] at the Steve Jobs theater at Apple Park. The adam and XS Max sport an improved Super Retina Display with Dolby Vision and HDR10 support with the XS Max featuring a larger 6.5 inches ( 170 millimeter ) display, improved cameras with Smart HDR, and the A12 Bionic chip. The iPhone XS and XS Max are IP68 water, fluent, and dust insubordinate which allow the devices to be submerged in astir to 2 meters for a duration of 30 minutes, while iPhone XR retained the IP67 documentation found in the first-generation iPhone X and besides features an IPS LCD display alternatively of the OLED displays found in the higher-end models. The iPhone XS/XS Max ‘s IP68 certifications were tested using diverse liquids such as chlorinated-water, seawater, tea, wine, beer, and juices. Apple besides announced the one-fourth coevals of Apple Watch, the Apple Watch Series 4. On September 10, 2019, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone 11 at Steve Jobs Theater, [ 57 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] along with the iPhone 11 Pro and the iPhone 11 Pro Max. All models gained a ultra-wide lens, allowing for a wide field of view. The Pro models gained a triple-lens camera arrangement, and a flat field glass polish. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 59 ] The iPhone 12 and 12 Pro series were about announced on October 13, 2020, featuring a fresh design, Super Retina XDR Displays across all models, and 5G connectivity. All models besides feature MagSafe, allowing special magnetic accessories to well snap on and off, while besides allowing 15W radio charging. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The iPhone 13 and 13 Pro series were virtually announced on September 14, 2021, featuring improved cameras with sensor-shift stabilization for all models, a aslant camera musical arrangement for the 13 and 13 miniskirt, significantly larger television camera sensors and an adaptive 120 Hz ProMotion display for the Pro models. All models besides gained a battery size increase, and a reduction in width of the TrueDepth camera module. [ 64 ] [ 65 ]


up to the iPhone 4, all iPhones and other io devices were manufactured by Foxconn, based in Taiwan. In 2011, new CEO Tim Cook changed Apple ‘s fabricate strategy to diversify its suppliers. The iPhone 4s in 2012 was the first mannequin to be manufactured simultaneously by two stand-alone companies : Foxconn and Pegatron, the latter besides based in Taiwan. Although Foxconn still produces more iPhones, Pegatron ‘s orders have been slowly increased : the company made part of the iPhone 5C line in 2013, and 30 % of iPhone 6 devices in 2014. The 6 Plus model was produced entirely by Foxconn. [ 66 ] In 2019, Apple investigated reports that some Foxconn managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones. [ 67 ] In India, Apple pays Wistron, a Taiwan-based manufacturer with a plant near Bangalore, to assemble iPhones to sell in the area. [ 68 ]


34 iPhone models have been produced. The models in bold are devices of the latest generation :

current devices

past devices

source : Apple Newsroom Archive [ 69 ] A comparison of iPhone sizes from the iPhone 5S to the iPhone 12


The iPhone contains most of the hardware parts of a typical modern smartphone. Some hardware elements, such as 3D touch and the Taptic Engine, are alone to the iPhone. The independent hardware of the iPhone is the touch screen, with current models offering screens of 4.7 inches and larger. A range of sensors are included on the device, such as a proximity detector, ambient light detector, accelerometer, gyroscopic detector, magnetometer, facial recognition detector, fingermark detector and barometer. All iPhones include a rear-facing camera, and a front-facing television camera being included on all models since the iPhone 4. The iPhone 7 Plus introduce multiple lenses to the rear-facing television camera to the iPhone .


The iPhone runs an engage organization known as io ( once iPhone OS ). [ 70 ] It is a form of the Darwin operating system kernel found in macOS. besides included is the “ Core Animation “ software part from Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. in concert with the graphics hardware ( and on the iPhone 3GS, OpenGL ES 2.0 ), it is responsible for the interface ‘s apparent motion graphics. The iPhone comes with a set of bunch applications developed by Apple, [ 71 ] and supports downloading third-party applications through the App Store. [ 72 ] Apple provides free [ 73 ] updates to the operate system for the iPhone either wirelessly or through iTunes. [ 74 ] Major new updates have historically accompanied raw models. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] The size of the operate system depends on the translation. While io 8 required over 4.5 GB, its successor required lone 1.3 GB. [ 77 ]

Supported OS release
OS release Generation
1st 3G 3GS 4 4S 5 5C 5S 6 / 6 Plus 6S / 6S Plus SE (1st) 7 / 7 Plus 8 / 8 Plus X XR, XS, XS Max 11, 11 Pro, 11 Pro Max SE (2nd) 12, 12 mini 12 Pro, 12 Pro Max 13, 13 mini, 13 Pro, 13 Pro Max SE (3rd)
iPhone OS 1 Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iPhone OS 2 Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iPhone OS 3 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 4 No Partial Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 5 No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 6 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 7 No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 8 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 9 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9.3 No No No No No No No No No No
iOS 10 No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No
iOS 11 No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 11.0.1 No No No No No No No
iOS 12 No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
iOS 13 No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 13.4 No No No No
iOS 14 No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 14.1 14.2 No No
iOS 15 No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 15.4


The interface is based around the home screen, a graphic list of available applications. iPhone applications normally run one at a time. Starting with the iPhone 4, a primitive version of multitasking came into play. Users could double click the home button to select recently opened applications. [ 78 ] however, the apps never ran in the background. Starting with io 7, though, apps can truly multitask, and each assailable application runs in the backdrop when not in use, although most functionality is calm available when making a call or listening to music. The home shield can be accessed by a hardware button below the filmdom on the iPhone 8 and earlier. iPhone ten and subsequently models, with the exception of the second and third base generation iPhone SE, rather use touch-based gestures. The original iPhone contained the keep up apps : Messages ( SMS and MMS messaging ), Calendar, Photos, Camera, YouTube, Stocks, Maps ( Google Maps ), Weather, Voice Memos, Notes, Clock, Calculator, Settings and iTunes ( shop ). The App Store was introduced in iPhone OS 2 for the original iPhone and iPhone 3G. scope was added in iPhone OS 3 for the iPhone 3GS. FaceTime and Game Center were added in io 4 and 4.1 respectively. In io 5, Reminders and Newsstand were added, and the ipod application was split into separate Music and Videos applications. iOS 6 total bankbook ampere well as a new translation of Maps called Apple Maps that relies on data provided by TomTom deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as other sources, and YouTube no longer came as a pre-installed application starting from that version. iOS 7 introduced a advanced directly design for the interface and added a motion-based parallax feature to give the device a quasi-3D effect. iOS 8 add Health app. iOS 9 replace Newsstand and Passbook with News and Wallet. io 10 introduced Home and dedicated a page on the home screen for the widgets. iOS 11 add Files. io 12 insert measure, an app that uses AR engineering to measure objects and things. It is available on devices with an A9 chip or fresh. Docked at the base of the screen, four icons for Phone, Mail, Safari ( Internet ), and Music delineate the iPhone ‘s main purposes. [ 79 ] On January 15, 2008, Apple released software update 1.1.3, allowing users to create “ Web Clips ”, dwelling screen icons that resemble apps that open a user-defined foliate in Safari. After the update, iPhone users can rearrange and place icons ( by holding down on any icon and moving it to the desired location once they start shaking ) on up to nine other adjacent home screens, accessed by a horizontal swipe. Users can besides add and delete icons from the bobtail, which is the same on every family sieve. The dock holds up to four icons and is located at the bottom section of the screen. Each home sieve holds up to twenty icons for the first-generation iPhone, 3G, 3GS, 4 and 4S ; The iPhone 5, 5C, 5S, and first-generation iPhone SE hold up to twenty-four icons ; while the iPhone 6 and late iPhone models support up to twenty-eight icons. Users can delete Web Clips and third-party applications at any time and may select alone certain applications for transfer from iTunes. Apple ‘s nonpayment programs could only be removed since the io 10 update. The 3.0 update added a system-wide search, known as Spotlight, to the left of the first home screen. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] about all input is given through the touch screen, which understands complex gestures using multi-touch. The iPhone ‘s interaction techniques enable the user to move the content up or down by a touch-drag gesticulate of the finger. For example, zooming in and out of network pages and photos is done by placing two fingers on the screen and spreading them farther apart or bringing them closer together, a gesticulate known as “ pinching “. Scrolling through a farseeing list or menu is achieved by sliding a finger over the display from bottom to top, or frailty versa to go back. In either font, the tilt moves as if it is pasted on the out open of a bicycle, slowly decelerating as if affected by friction. In this way, the interface simulates the physics of a real object. Unlike previous scrollable views, in which the user pressed a “ down ” manipulate to move the view “ downwards ”, on iOS the user pushes upwards, as if moving a “ plank of woodwind floating on the water ”, creating the impression that the user is directly manipulating the content displayed on the blind. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] early user-centered synergistic effects include horizontally sliding sub-selection, the vertically sliding keyboard and bookmarks menu, and widgets that turn around to allow settings to be configured on the other side. Menu bars are found at the acme and bottom of the screen when necessity. Their options vary by program but constantly follow a reproducible style theme. In menu hierarchies, a “ back ” button in the top-left corner of the screen displays the identify of the parent folder .


When making a call, the iPhone presents a number of options, including FaceTime on subscribe models. The screen is mechanically disable when held close to the face. The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call restrain, call unite, caller ID, and integration with early cellular net features and iPhone functions. For model, if music is playing when a call is received, the music fades out and fades back in when the call has ended. The proximity detector shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought finale to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. The iPhone does not support video recording calling or videoconferencing on versions anterior to the one-fourth generation, as there is merely one television camera on the antonym side of the screen door. [ 85 ] The iPhone 4 supports television calling using either the front man or back camera over Wi-Fi, a sport Apple calls FaceTime. [ 86 ] Voice control, introduced in the iPhone 3GS, allows users to say a touch ‘s name or number and the iPhone will dial it. [ 87 ] The first two models entirely support voice dialing through third-party applications. [ 88 ] The iPhone includes a ocular voice mail ( in some countries ) [ 89 ] feature allowing users to view a number of current voice mail messages on-screen without having to call into their voice mail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a non-chronological decree by choosing any message from an on-screen number. A music ringtone sport was introduced in the United States on September 5, 2007. Users can create custom-made ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a minor extra fee. The ringtones can be three to 30 seconds long from any part of a song, can fade in and out, pause from half a second to five seconds when looped, or loop endlessly. All customize can be done in iTunes, [ 90 ] or with Apple ‘s GarageBand software 4.1.1 or late ( available lone on Mac OS X ) [ 91 ] or third-party tools. [ 92 ] With the liberation of io 6, which was released on September 19, 2012, Apple added features that enable the user to have options to decline a telephone call when a person is calling them. The user can reply with a message, or set a admonisher to call them back at a former time. [ 93 ]


The layout of the music library is exchangeable to that of an ipod. The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their rate from iTunes. The iPhone uses a big font that allows users plenty of board to touch their survival. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape manner to access Cover Flow. Like on iTunes, this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photograph library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the riddle. alternatively, headset controls can be used to pause, play, hop, and repeat tracks. On the iPhone 3GS, the volume can be changed with the include Apple Earphones, and the Voice Control have can be used to identify a track, play songs in a playlist or by a specific artist, or create a Genius playlist. [ 87 ] The iPhone supports gapless playback. [ 94 ] Like the fifth-generation iPods introduced in 2005, the iPhone can play digital video, allowing users to watch television shows and movies in widescreen. Double-tapping switches between widescreen and fullscreen video playback. The iPhone allows users to purchase and download songs from the iTunes Store directly to their iPhone. The feature originally required a Wi-Fi network, but since 2012, it can be used on a cellular data network. [ 95 ] The iPhone includes software that allows the user to upload, opinion, and e-mail photos taken with the camera. The exploiter zooms in and out of photos by sliding two fingers further aside or closer together, much like Safari. The television camera application besides lets users view the television camera roll, the pictures that have been taken with the iPhone ‘s television camera. Those pictures are besides available in the Photos application, along with any transferred from iPhoto or aperture on a Mac, or Photoshop on a Windows personal computer. The iPhone did not support voice recording until the 3.0 software update. [ 81 ] [ 82 ]

Internet connectivity

Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation ( 2G ) radio data standards. Networks accessible from iPhone models include 1xRTT ( represented by a 1× on the status bar ) and GPRS ( shown as GPRS on the status bar ), EDGE ( shown as a capital e on the status bar ), UMTS and EV-DO ( shown as 3G ), a faster interpretation of UMTS and 4G ( shown as a 4G symbol on the condition barricade ), and LTE ( shown as LTE on the status browning automatic rifle ). [ 96 ] The iPhone 3G introduced digest for third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6, [ 97 ] the iPhone 4S introduced back for HSUPA networks ( 14.4 Mbit/s ), and accompaniment for HSDPA 7.2 was introduced in the iPhone 3GS. [ 98 ] and the iPhone 5 introduced support for 4G LTE. 5G development is now supported on AT & T in areas where implemented and stylized as a larger 5G and reduce size das kapital E. [ 99 ] 5GE uses the 4×4 MIMO doubling the number of antennas, 256-QAM, and tripartite carrier collection. True 5G back was added starting with the iPhone 12 series in fall 2020. All iPhone 12 models support sub-6 GHz frequencies, but only models purchased in the United States support mmWave. [ 100 ] AT & T introduced 3G in July 2004, [ 101 ] but vitamin a late as 2007, Steve Jobs stated that it was distillery not far-flung enough in the US, and the chipsets not energy effective adequate, to be included in the iPhone. [ 102 ] Support for 802.1X, an authentication system normally used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 interpretation update. [ 103 ] By nonpayment, the iPhone will ask to join newly discovered Wi-Fi networks and immediate for the password when required. alternatively, it can join closed Wi-Fi networks manually. [ 104 ] The iPhone will mechanically choose the strongest network, connecting to Wi-Fi rather of EDGE when it is available. [ 105 ] Similarly, the iPhone 3G and onwards prefer 3G to 2G, and Wi-Fi to either. [ 106 ] Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G ( on the iPhone 3G onwards ) can all be deactivated individually. Airplane mode disables all wireless connections at once, overriding early preferences. however, once in Airplane manner, one can explicitly enable Wi-Fi and/or Bluetooth modes to join and continue to operate over one or both of those networks while the cellular network transceivers remain off. Safari is the iPhone ‘s native web browser, and it displays pages like to its Mac and Windows counterparts. Web pages may be viewed in portrayal or landscape mode and the device supports automatic soar by pinching together or spreading apart fingertips on the blind, or by double-tapping text or images. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] Safari does not allow file downloads except for predefined extensions. The iPhone does not support Flash, which was hush popular when the iPhone was introduced. [ 109 ] Consequently, the UK ‘s advertise Standards Authority adjudicated that an ad claiming the iPhone could access “ all parts of the internet ” should be withdrawn in its current kind, on grounds of false advertise. In a rare populace letter in April 2010, Apple CEO Steve Jobs outlined the reason behind the absence of Flash on the iPhone ( and iPad ). [ 110 ] The iPhone supports SVG, CSS, HTML Canvas, and Bonjour. [ 111 ] Google Chrome was introduced to the io on June 26, 2012, and Opera miniskirt is besides available. The Maps application can access Google Maps in map, satellite, or hybrid shape. It can besides generate directions between two locations, while providing optional real-time traffic information. During the iPhone ‘s announcement, Jobs demonstrated this feature by searching for nearby Starbucks locations and then placing a buffoonery name to one with a one tap. [ 112 ] [ 113 ] Support for walking directions, public transportation system, and street scene was added in the version 2.2 software update, but no voice-guided navigation. [ 114 ] The iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 can orient the map with its digital compass. [ 115 ] Apple besides developed a separate lotion to view YouTube video on the iPhone, which streams videos after encoding them using the H.264 codec. simple weather and stock quotes applications besides tap into the Internet. iPhone users can and do access the Internet frequently, and in a assortment of places. According to Google, in 2008, the iPhone generated 50 times more search requests than any other mobile handset. [ 116 ] According to Deutsche Telekom CEO René Obermann, “ The modal Internet use for an iPhone customer is more than 100 megabytes. This is 30 times the function for our average contract-based consumer customers. ” [ 117 ] Nielsen found that 98 % of iPhone users use data services, and 88 % use the internet. [ 35 ] In China, the iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS were built and distributed without Wi-Fi. [ 118 ] With the initiation of the Verizon iPhone in January 2011, the issue of using the internet while on the phone was brought to the public ‘s attention. Under the two U.S. carriers, internet and phone could be used simultaneously on AT & T networks, whereas Verizon networks only support the function of each individually. [ 119 ] however, in 2014, Verizon announced that the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus would allow coincident voice and data over its LTE Network. [ 120 ] T-Mobile and Sprint have enabled calls over Wi-Fi, with Verizon and AT & T soon doing the like. [ 121 ]

Text input

For text input, the iPhone implements a virtual keyboard on the touch screen. It has automatic go check and correction, predictive son capabilities, and a dynamic dictionary that learns new words. The keyboard can predict what password the user is typing and complete it, and right for the accidental crusade of keys near the make bold desired key. [ 122 ] The keys are slightly larger and spaced farther apart when in landscape manner, which is supported by only a limited total of applications. Touching a section of text for a abbreviated time brings up a magnify glass, allowing users to place the cursor in the in-between of existing text. The virtual keyboard can accommodate 21 languages, including character recognition for Chinese. [ 123 ] alternative characters with accents ( for example, letters from the alphabets of early languages ) and emoji can be typed from the keyboard by pressing the letter for two seconds and selecting the alternative character from the popup. [ 124 ] The 3.0 update brought support for geld, copy, or pasting text, american samoa well as landscape keyboards in more applications. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] On iPhone 4S and above, Siri allows dictation. Since io 8, third party keyboards, distributed through the App Store, are allowed. previously, they were only available on jailbroken iPhones. [ 125 ]

Email and textbook messages

The iPhone besides features an e-mail course of study that supports HTML e-mail, which enables the exploiter to embed photos in an e-mail message. PDF, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint attachments to mail messages can be viewed on the earphone. [ 126 ] Yahoo ! offers a release push-email serve for the iPhone. IMAP ( although not Push-IMAP ) and POP3 chain mail standards are besides supported, including Microsoft Exchange [ 127 ] and Kerio Connect. [ 128 ] In the first versions of the iPhone firmware, this was accomplished by opening up IMAP on the Exchange waiter. Apple has besides licensed Microsoft ActiveSync and supports the platform ( including push electronic mail ) with the unblock of iPhone 2.0 firmware. [ 129 ] The iPhone will sync electronic mail account settings over from Apple ‘s own Mail application, Microsoft Outlook, and Microsoft Entourage, or it can be manually configured on the device itself. The electronic mail course of study can entree about any IMAP or POP3 history. [ 131 ] textbook messages are presented chronologically in a postbox format exchangeable to Mail, which places all text from recipients together with replies. text messages are displayed in lecture bubbles ( exchangeable to iChat ) under each recipient ‘s diagnose. The iPhone has built-in support for electronic mail message forward, drafts, and direct home camera-to-email video sending. support for multi-recipient SMS was added in the 1.1.3 software update. [ 132 ] Support for MMS was added in the 3.0 update, but not for the original first base genesis iPhone [ 81 ] [ 82 ] and not in the U.S. until September 25, 2009. [ 133 ] [ 134 ]

Third-party applications

At WWDC 2007 on June 11, 2007, Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party web applications using Ajax that share the attend and feel of the iPhone interface. [ 135 ] On October 17, 2007, Steve Jobs, in an loose letter posted to Apple ‘s “ Hot News ” weblog, announced that a software development kit ( SDK ) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008. [ 136 ] The iPhone SDK was officially announced and released on March 6, 2008, at the Apple Town Hall facility. [ 137 ] It is a barren download, with an Apple registration, that allows developers to develop native applications for the iPhone and ipod Touch, then test them in an “ iPhone simulator ”. however, loading an application onto a real device is only possible after paying an Apple Developer Connection membership fee. Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70 % share. [ 138 ] Developers can besides opt to release the application for detached and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application beyond the membership fee. The App Store was launched with the release of iPhone OS 2.0, on July 11, 2008. The update was free for iPhone users ; owners of older ipod Touches were required to pay US $ 10 for it. [ 139 ] once a developer has submitted an application to the App Store, Apple holds fast see over its distribution. Apple can halt the distribution of applications it deems inappropriate, for exemplar, I Am Rich, a US $ 1000 course of study that plainly demonstrated the wealth of its drug user, and Send Me To Heaven, a game that encouraged users to throw their phones in the air. [ 140 ] [ 141 ] Apple has been criticized for banning third-party applications that enable a functionality that Apple does not want the iPhone to have : In 2008, Apple rejected Podcaster, which allowed iPhone users to download podcasts directly to the iPhone claiming it duplicated the functionality of iTunes. [ 142 ] Apple has since released a software update that grants this capability. [ 114 ] NetShare, another rejected app, would have enabled users to tether their iPhone to a laptop or background, using its cellular network to load data for the computer. [ 143 ] many carriers of the iPhone late globally allowed tethering before Apple formally supported it with the upgrade to the iPhone OS 3.0, with AT & T Mobility being a relative latecomer in the United States. [ 144 ] In the United States, most carriers charge supernumerary for tethering a iPhone. [ 145 ] Before the SDK was released, third base parties were permitted to design “ Web Apps ” that would run through Safari. [ 146 ] Unsigned native applications are besides available for “ jailbroken ” phones. [ 147 ] The ability to install native applications onto the iPhone outside of the App Store is not supported by Apple, the express argue being that such native applications could be broken by any software update, but Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications other than those that perform SIM unlock. [ 148 ] As of October 2013, Apple has passed 60 billion app downloads. [ 149 ] As of September 2016, there have been over 140 billion app downloads from the App Store. [ 150 ] As of January 2017, the App Store has over 2.2 million apps for the iPhone. [ 151 ] [ 152 ]

handiness features

Starting with the iPhone 4S, Apple added an handiness feature to optimize the routine of the iPhone with hearing aids. [ 153 ] Apple released a program of Made for iPhone Hearing Aids. [ 154 ] These hearing aids deliver a power-efficient, high-quality digital audio experience and allow the drug user to manage the hear aid mighty from the iPhone. Made for iPhone hearing aids besides feature Live Listen. With Live Listen the iPhone acts as a outside microphone that sends legal to a Made for iPhone listen care. survive Listen can help the exploiter hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear person speaking across the room. [ 155 ] The Braille Displays for the io broadcast was announced by Apple coinciding with the handout of the iPhone 3GS, iPad and iPod Touch ( 3rd Generation ). This platform added support for more than 50 Bluetooth radio braille displays that work with iOS out of the box. The user only needs to pair the keyboard to the device to start using it to navigate the io device with VoiceOver without any extra software. io supports braille tables for more than 25 languages. [ 156 ] iPhone lets the drug user know when an alert is sent to it, in a assortment of notice methods. It delivers both ocular and vibrating alerts for incoming call and FaceTime calls, raw text messages, new and send mail, and calendar events. Users can set an LED easy flash for incoming calls and alerts or have incoming calls display a photograph of the caller. Users can choose from different vibration patterns or even create their own. [ 157 ] The iPhone can enlarge textbook to make it more accessible for vision-impaired users, [ 158 ] and can accommodate hard-of-hearing users with shut caption and external TTY devices. [ 159 ] The iPhone 3GS besides features white on black mode, VoiceOver ( a screen reader ), and zooming for impair vision, and infectious mononucleosis sound recording for limited earshot in one ear. [ 160 ] Apple regularly publishes voluntary Product Accessibility Templates which explicitly state of matter complaisance with the U.S. rule “ section 508 “. [ 161 ] With the unblock of io 9 for all iPhones, users have the ability to choose between two different screen opinion options. The user can choose to have a standard opinion or zoomed scene. When the iPhone is placed in a standard scene jell, the icons are normal size and the textbook remains the same. With a zoom opinion choice, the icons on the screen and the textbook become slightly larger. This enables the user to have a more custom-make appearance and it can potentially help some users read the sieve easier. AssistiveTouch helps to adapt the Multi-Touch screen of an io device to a drug user ‘s alone physical needs. This can be of great aid to those who have difficulty with some gestures, like top, one can make them accessible with just a tapdance of a feel. The user can create their own gestures and customize the layout of the AssistiveTouch menu. If the user has worry pressing the Home button, it can be set so that it can be activated with an onscreen tap. Gestures, like rotate and rock, are available tied when if the io device is mounted on a wheelchair. [ 157 ] Guided Access helps people with autism or other attention and centripetal challenges stay focused on the undertaking ( or app ) at hand. With Guided Access, a parent, teacher, or therapist can limit an io device to stay on one app by disabling the Home button and limit the come of time spent in an app. The exploiter can restrict access to the keyboard or touch input on sealed areas of the screen. In 2019 Apple began developing satellites therefore that the iPhone could skip wireless carriers. [ 162 ]

iPhone Upgrade Program

The iPhone Upgrade Program is a 24-month program designed for consumers to be able to get the latest iPhone every year, without paying the whole price up-front. The program consists of “ low monthly payments ”, where consumers will gradually pay for the iPhone they have over a 24-month menstruation, with an opportunity to switch ( upgrade ) to the modern iPhone after 12 months of payment have passed. once 12 months have passed, consumers can trade their stream iPhone with a fresh one, and the payments are transferred from the honest-to-god device to the new device, and the program “ restarts ” with a new 24-month period. [ 163 ] extra features of the program include unlock handsets, which means consumers are free to pick the network mailman they want, and biennial AppleCare+ protection, which includes “ hardware repairs, software confirm, and coverage for up to two incidents of accidental damage ”. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] criticism of the program includes the electric potential endless cycle of payments, with The Huffington Post ‘s Damon Beres write, “ Complete the full 24-month payment bicycle, and you ‘re stuck with an outdated phone. Upgrade every 12 months, and you ‘ll never stop owing Apple money for iPhones ”. additionally, the program is limited to just the iPhone hardware ; cell earphone service from a network operator is not included. [ 165 ]

Intellectual property

Apple has filed more than 200 patent applications related to the engineering behind the iPhone. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] LG Electronics claimed the design of the iPhone was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R & D Center, said at a weight-lift league : “ we consider that Apple copied Prada call after the design was unveil when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the pry in September 2006. ” [ 168 ] conversely, the iPhone has besides inspired its own plowshare of high-tech clones. [ 169 ] On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the U.S. brand “ I PHONE ” [ 170 ] and on March 20, 1996, applied for the trademark “ IPhone ”. [ 171 ] “ I Phone ” was registered in March 1998, [ 170 ] and “ IPhone ” was registered in 1999. [ 171 ] Since then, the I PHONE check had been abandoned. [ 170 ] Infogear trademarks cover “ communications terminals comprising calculator hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal calculator functions ” ( 1993 file ), [ 170 ] and “ computer hardware and software for providing integrate telephone communication with cybernate global information networks ” ( 1996 file ). [ 172 ] In 2000, Infogear filed an violation claim against the owners of the iPhones.com domain name. [ 173 ] The owners of the iPhones.com world identify challenged the misdemeanor claim in the Northern District Court of California. In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark. [ 174 ] In September 2000, Cisco Systems settled with the owners of iPhones.com and allowed the owners to keep the iPhones.com domain name along with intellectual property rights to use any appointment of the iPhones.com domain name for the sale of cellular phones, cellular phones with Internet access ( WAP PHONES ), hand-held PDAs, memory devices, computer equipment ( hardware/software ), and digital cameras ( hardware/software ). The intellectual property rights were granted to the owners of the iPhones.com domain list by Cisco Systems in September 2000. In October 2002, Apple applied for the “ iPhone ” hallmark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union. A canadian application followed in October 2004, and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006, only the Singapore and australian applications had been granted. In September 2006, a ship’s company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an “ iPhone ” hallmark in the United States, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, following a charge in Trinidad and Tobago. [ 175 ] As the Ocean Telecom hallmark applications use precisely the same wording as the New Zealand application of Apple, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple. [ 176 ] The canadian application was opposed in August 2005, by a canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months late. Comwave has been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004. [ 174 ] shortly after Steve Jobs ‘ January 9, 2007, announcement that Apple would be selling a intersection called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a affirmation that it had been negotiating hallmark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before. [ 177 ] On January 10, 2007, Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the violation of the hallmark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name. [ 178 ] In February 2007, Cisco claimed that the brand lawsuit was a “ minor brush ” that was not about money, but about interoperability. [ 179 ] On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they held settlement talks, [ 180 ] and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007, that they had reached an agreement. Both companies will be allowed to use the “ iPhone ” appoint [ 181 ] in exchange for “ exploring interoperability ” between their security system, consumer, and clientele communications products. [ 182 ] On October 22, 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple for violation of its GSM, UMTS and WLAN patents. Nokia alleges that Apple has been violating ten-spot Nokia patents since the iPhone initial free. [ 183 ] In December 2010, Reuters reported that some iPhone and iPad users were suing Apple Inc. because some applications were passing user information to third-party advertisers without license. Some makers of the applications such as Textplus4, Paper Toss, The Weather Channel, Dictionary.com, Talking Tom Cat and Pumpkin Maker have besides been named as co-defendants in the lawsuit. [ 184 ] In August 2012, Apple won a smartphone patent lawsuit in the U.S. against Samsung, the global ‘s largest maker of smartphones ; [ 185 ] however, on December 6, 2016, SCOTUS reversed the decision that awarded about $ 400 million to Apple and returned the font to Federal Circuit court to define the allow legal standard to define “ article of fabricate ” because it is not the smartphone itself but could be just the case and screen to which the design patents relate. [ 186 ] In March 2013, an Apple patent for a wraparound display was revealed. [ 187 ]


Apple tightly controls certain aspects of the iPhone. According to Jonathan Zittrain, the emergence of close devices like the iPhone have made computing more proprietary than early versions of Microsoft Windows. [ 188 ] The hacker community has found many workarounds, most of which are disallowed by Apple and make it unmanageable or impossible to obtain guarantee overhaul. [ 189 ] “ Jailbreaking “ allows users to install apps not available on the App Store or modify basic functionality. SIM unlock allows the iPhone to be used on a different mailman ‘s network. [ 190 ] however, in the United States, Apple can not void an iPhone ‘s guarantee unless it can show that a problem or part failure is linked to the initiation or placement of an after-market item such as unauthorized applications, because of the Federal Trade Commission ‘s Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975. [ 191 ] Users can set restrictions or parental controls [ 192 ] on apps that can be downloaded or used within the iPhone. The restrictions area requires a password. [ 193 ]


The iPhone normally prevents entree to its media player and web features unless it has besides been activated as a telephone with an authorized carrier wave. On July 3, 2007, Jon Lech Johansen reported on his web log that he had successfully bypassed this requirement and unlocked the iPhone ‘s early features with a combination of customs software and modification of the iTunes binary. He published the software and offsets for others to use. [ 194 ] Unlike the first generation iPhone, the iPhone 3G must be activated in the store in most countries. [ 195 ] This makes the iPhone 3G more unmanageable, but not impossible, to hack. The indigence for in-store activation, angstrom well as the huge number of first-generation iPhone and iPod Touch users upgrading to iPhone OS 2.0, caused a global overload of Apple ‘s servers on July 11, 2008, the day on which both the iPhone 3G and iPhone OS 2.0 updates a well as MobileMe were released. After the update, devices were required to connect to Apple ‘s servers to authenticate it, causing many devices to be temporarily unserviceable. [ 196 ] Users on the O2 net in the United Kingdom, however, can buy the call on-line and activate it via iTunes as with the previous model. [ 197 ] [ unreliable source? ] even where not required, vendors normally offer energizing for the buyer ‘s convenience. In the US, Apple has begun to offer unblock transportation on both the iPhone 3G and the iPhone 3GS ( when available ), reversing the in-store activation requirement. Best Buy and Walmart will besides sell the iPhone. [ 198 ]

Unapproved third-party software and jailbreaking

The iPhone ‘s function system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptanalytic signature. This restriction can be overcome by “ jailbreaking ” the phone, [ 199 ] which involves replacing the iPhone ‘s firmware with a slenderly modified interpretation that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple ‘s technical protection measures. [ 200 ] Apple, in a instruction to the United States Copyright Office in response to Electronic Frontier Foundation ( EFF ) lobby for a DMCA exception for this kind of hack, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright violation ascribable to the necessary change of system software. [ 201 ] however, in 2010, Jailbreaking was declared officially legal in the United States by the DMCA. [ 202 ] Jailbroken iPhones may be susceptible to calculator viruses, but few such incidents have been reported. [ 203 ] [ 204 ] io and Android 2.3.3 ‘Gingerbread ‘ may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone with the help of OpeniBoot or iDroid. [ 205 ] [ 206 ] In 2007, 2010, and 2011, developers released a series of tools called JailbreakMe that used security vulnerabilities in Mobile Safari rendering to jailbreak the device ( which allows users to install any compatible software on the device rather of entirely App Store apps ). [ 207 ] [ 208 ] [ 209 ] Each of these exploits were promptly fixed by io updates from Apple. Theoretically these flaws could have besides been used for malicious purposes. [ 210 ] In July 2011, Apple released io 4.3.5 ( 4.2.10 for CDMA iPhone ) to fix a security system vulnerability with certificate establishment. [ 211 ] Following the publish of the iPhone 5S model, a group of german hackers called the Chaos Computer Club announced on September 21, 2013, that they had bypassed Apple ‘s fresh Touch ID fingerprint detector by using “ easy everyday means. ” The group explained that the security arrangement had been defeated by photographing a fingerprint from a glass open and using that get visualize as confirmation. The spokesman for the group stated : “ We hope that this last puts to rest the illusions people have about fingerprint biometrics. It is homely dazed to use something that you ca n’t change and that you leave everywhere every day as a security token. ” [ 212 ] [ 213 ]

SIM unlock

United States

Most iPhones were and are even [ citation needed ] sold with a SIM lock in, which restricts the use of the phone to one detail carrier, a coarse rehearse with subsidize GSM phones. Unlike most GSM phones, however, the phone can not be formally unlocked by entering a code. [ citation needed ] The locked/unlocked state is maintained on Apple ‘s servers [ citation needed ] per IMEI and is set when the iPhone is activated. [ 214 ] [ failed verification ] While the iPhone was initially sold in the U.S. merely on the AT & T network with a SIM lock in identify, versatile hackers have found methods to “ unlock “ the telephone from a particular network. [ 215 ] Although AT & T, Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon are the only authorized iPhone carriers in the United States [ citation needed ], unlock iPhones can be used with early carriers. [ 216 ] [ failed verification ] For model, an unlock iPhone may be used on the T-Mobile net in the U.S. but, while an unbarred iPhone is compatible with T-Mobile ‘s voice net, it may not be able to make use of 3G or 4G functionality ( i.e. no mobile network or e-mail, etc. ). [ 217 ] [ failed verification ] More than a quarter of the master beginning genesis iPhones sold in the U.S. were not registered with AT & T. Apple speculates that they were probable shipped oversea and unlock ( besides known as box break ), a lucrative grocery store before the iPhone 3G ‘s cosmopolitan spill. [ 34 ] [ 218 ] On March 26, 2009, AT & T in the United States began selling the iPhone without a condense, though still SIM-locked to their net. [ 219 ] The up-front purchase price of such iPhone units is much twice arsenic expensive as those bundled with contracts. [ 220 ] Outside of the United States, policies differ, specially in U.S. territories and insular areas like Guam ; GTA Teleguam was the exclusive carrier for the iPhone since its insertion, as none of the four U.S. carriers ( AT & T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon ) have a presence in the area. [ 221 ] Since 2013, Docomo Pacific ended GTA ‘s exclusivity starting with the iPhone 5. [ 222 ] Beginning April 8, 2012, AT & T began offering a factory SIM unlock choice ( which Apple calls a “ whitelisting ”, allowing it to be used on any carrier the earphone supports ) for iPhone owners. [ 223 ] It has been reported that all of the Verizon 4G LTE phones come factory unbarred. After such discovery, Verizon announced that all of their 4G LTE phones, including iPhones, would remain unlock. This is due to the regulations that the FCC has placed on the 700 MHz C-Block spectrum, [ citation needed ] which is used by Verizon. [ 224 ] [ failed verification ] Apple loses more money than it makes on repair services in the US. [ 225 ]

other countries

In the United Kingdom, O2, EE, 3, Vodafone, and Tesco Mobile sell the device under subsidize contracts, or for manipulation on a give as you go. They are locked to the network initially, though they can normally be unlock either after a sealed period of sign distance has passed, or for a small tip ( with the exception of the 3 network, which will unlock the device at any meter for no charge ). [ 226 ] however, all current versions of iPhone are available for purchase SIM-free from the Apple Store or Apple ‘s Online Store, consequently, they are unlock for use on any GSM network besides. [ 227 ] [ unreliable source? ] In Canada, all iPhones purchased for fully retail price at an Apple Store or on-line at apple.com come unlocked which allows customer selection of carriers. iPhones sold in Canada purchased through mobile carries such as TELUS, Rogers, or Bell were locked to their respective networks and unlock required visiting a carrier wave store and paying an unlock fee. Third-party methods to unlock iPhones existed but were highly undependable and sometimes picture phones unserviceable. [ citation needed ] however, in 2017 the CRTC abolished SIM-locking and required that all fluid devices sold after December 1, 2017, come unbarred. [ 228 ] The CRTC besides mandated that carriers must offer unlock services of existing devices for free to consumers, careless of whether or not they had purchased the telephone themselves. In Australia, the three major carriers ( Optus, Telstra and Vodafone ) [ 229 ] [ unreliable source? ] volunteer legalize unlock, now at no monetary value for all iPhone devices, both current and anterior models. internationally, policies vary, but many carriers sell the iPhone unlocked for wax retail price. [ 230 ]

prevention of compensate

Apple takes numerous measures that make third-party repairs unmanageable. only Apple and service providers / independent repair providers explicitly authorized by Apple are able to perform actual replacements. [ 231 ] In the past ( with models arsenic early on as the iPhone 6 ), there have been reports such as abnegation of mathematical process if the dwelling button is detected to have been tampered with, upon which an Error 53 is indicated rather. [ 232 ] There have besides been issues caused by swapping a display made by one manufacturer with one made by another, as Apple uses multiple suppliers for its displays. [ 233 ] In more recent models ( starting with the iPhone XR ), Apple displays non-removable warnings if the battery, expose, or television camera is replaced by a third party. [ 234 ] Additionally, features are disable upon detection of a “ non-genuine ” substitution such as disabling true tone or hiding the battery health feature. iFixit notes that a proprietorship, cloud-linked System Configuration tool is required to “ complete ” a part repair, think of that even replacing a genuine separate with another genuine part will fail Apple ‘s “ actual parts ” check unless said tool is used. [ 235 ]

legal battles over brand name

In Mexico, the brand iFone was registered in 2003 by a communications systems and services company, iFone. [ 236 ] Apple tried to gain control over its trade name name, but a mexican court denied the request. The case began in 2009, when the Mexican firm sued Apple. The Supreme Court of Mexico upheld that iFone is the rightful owner and held that Apple iPhone is a trademark misdemeanor. [ 237 ] In Brazil, the brand IPHONE was registered in 2000 by the company then called Gradiente Eletrônica S.A., now IGB Eletrônica S.A. According to the file, Gradiente foresaw the revolution in the convergence of articulation and data over the Internet at the time. [ 238 ] The final battle over the brand name concluded in 2008. On December 18, 2012, IGB launched its own wrinkle of Android smartphones under the tradename to which it has single rights in the local anesthetic grocery store. [ 238 ] In February 2013, the brazilian Patent and Trademark Office ( known as “ Instituto Nacional district attorney Propriedade Industrial ” ) issued a rule that Gradiente Eletrônica, not Apple, owned the “ iPhone ” bell ringer in Brazil. The “ iPhone ” condition was registered by Gradiente in 2000, seven years before Apple ‘s spill of its first iPhone. This decision came three months after Gradiente Eletrônica launched a lower-cost smartphone using the iPhone sword. [ 239 ] In June 2014, Apple won, for the second time, the proper to use the brand diagnose in Brazil. The court rule determined that the Gradiente ‘s registration does not own single rights on the post. Although Gradiente intended to appeal, with the decisiveness Apple can use freely the brand without paying royalties to the brazilian company. [ 240 ] In the Philippines, Solid Group launched the MyPhone brand in 2007. Stylized as “ my|phone ”, Solid Broadband filed a trademark application of that sword. Apple subsequently filed a trademark case at the Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines ( IPOPHL ) against Solid Broadband ‘s MyPhone for “ bewilderingly like ” to the iPhone and that it may likely “ deceive ” or “ campaign confusion ” among consumers. Apple lost the trademark battle to Solid Group in a 2015 decision made by IPO film director Nathaniel Arevalo, who besides reportedly said that it was improbable that consumers would be confused between the “ iPhone ” and the “ MyPhone ”. “ This is a case of a giant trying to claim more territory than what it is entitled to, to the great prejudice of a local ‘Pinoy Phone ‘ merchant who has managed to obtain a significant foothold in the mobile earphone commercialize through the selling and sale of innovative products under a identical distinctive brand ”, Arevalo late added. [ 241 ] [ 242 ]

privacy issues

location tracking controversies

Around April 20, 2011, a hidden unencrypted file on the iPhone and early io devices was wide discussed in the media. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] It was alleged that the charge, labeled “ consolidated.db ”, constantly stores the iPhone drug user ‘s movement by approximating geographic locations calculated by triangulating nearby cell telephone towers, a technology test to be inaccurate at times. [ 245 ] The file was released with the June 2010 update of Apple iOS 4 and may contain about a year ‘s worth of data. previous versions of io stored exchangeable information in a file called “ h-cells.plist ”. [ 246 ] F-Secure discovered that the data is transmitted to Apple doubly a sidereal day and postulate that Apple is using the information to construct their global localization database similar to the ones constructed by Google and Skyhook through wardriving. [ 247 ] Nevertheless, unlike the Google “ Latitude ” application, which performs a like job on Android phones, the file is not dependent upon signing a particular EULA or even the exploiter ‘s cognition, but it is stated in the 15,200 word-long terms and conditions of the iPhone that “ Apple and [ their ] partners and licensees may collect, use, and partake precise placement data, including the real-time geographic location of [ the user ‘s ] Apple computer or device ”. [ 248 ] The file is besides mechanically copied onto the drug user ‘s calculator once synchronized with the iPhone. An open-source application named “ iPhoneTracker ”, which turns the datum stored in the file into a ocular map, was made available to the public in April 2011. [ 249 ] While the file can not be erased without jailbreaking the phone, it can be encrypted. [ 250 ] Apple gave an official reception on their web web site on April 27, 2011, [ 251 ] after questions were submitted by users, the Associated Press and others. Apple clarified that the datum is a small helping of their crowd-sourced location database hoard of Wi-Fi hotspots and cell towers which is downloaded from Apple into the iPhone for making location services faster than with only GPS, therefore the datum does not represent the locations of the iPhone. The volume of data retained was an mistake. Apple issued an update for io ( translation 4.3.3, or 4.2.8 for the CDMA iPhone 4 ) which reduced the size of the hoard, stopped it being backed up to iTunes, and erased it entirely whenever location services were turned off. [ 251 ] The upload to Apple can besides be selectively disabled from “ System services ”, “ Cell Network Search. ” Regardless, in July 2014, a report on state-owned China Central Television labeled the iPhone a “ national security business. ” [ 252 ] The “ frequent Locations ” feature found in “ Settings ” under “ Location Services ” stores normally visited locations locally on the device. [ 253 ] This feature of speech is said to help the accuracy of the GPS and Apple Maps since it can log data about the locations the exploiter has frequently visited. however, this feature besides keeps track of the number of times that the user has been to that location, the dates, and the exact times. Media outlets have publicized instructions on how this can be disabled for implicated users. [ 254 ]

transmission of individual and technical data

A privacy experiment conducted by the Washington Post determined that the iPhone transmitted a master of ceremonies of personal data without the user ‘s cognition or consent, including call number, electronic mail, demand localization, device model and IP address, to “ a twelve marketing companies, research firms and other personal data guzzlers ” via 5,400 hidden app trackers. [ 255 ] Some of the information shared with third parties was found to be in trespass of the apps ‘ own privacy regulations. [ 256 ]

encoding and intelligence means entree

It was revealed as a region of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures that the American and british intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency ( NSA ) and the Government Communications Headquarters ( GCHQ ) have access to the drug user data in iPhones, BlackBerrys, and Android phones, respectively. They can read about all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. [ 257 ] According to an article in The New York Times titled “ Signaling Post-Snowden Era, New iPhone Locks Out N.S.A. “, Apple has developed a fresh encoding method for io 8, described as “ so trench that Apple could no longer comply with government warrants asking for customer information to be extracted from devices. ” [ 258 ] Throughout 2015, prosecutors in the United States argued for the U.S. government to be able to compel decoding of iPhone contents. [ 259 ] [ 260 ] [ 261 ] [ 262 ] After the 2015 San Bernardino fire, the FBI recovered an iPhone 5C that was issued to one of the shooters by his employer, and iCloud backups of that earphone from a calendar month and a half before the shooting. ( The shooters had destroyed their personal phones. ) The U.S. government attempted to obtain a woo order under the All Writs Act compelling Apple to produce an IPSW file that would allow investigators to brute force the device passcode. [ 263 ] [ 264 ] [ 265 ] Tim Cook responded on the company ‘s web site, outlining a indigence for encoding, arguing that if they produce a back door for one device, it would inevitably be used to compromise the privacy of other iPhone users. [ 266 ] On February 19, Apple communicated to journalists that the password for the Apple ID for the iPhone had been changed within a day of the government obtaining it, preventing Apple from producing a workaround that would only target older devices. [ 267 ] See FBI–Apple encoding quarrel. The GrayKey, manufactured by Grayshift, can unlock iPhones, even if they are disabled. [ 268 ] [ 269 ] As a countermeasure, Apple implemented USB Restricted Mode. [ 270 ] As of April 2016, Apple ‘s privacy policy addresses requests from politics agencies for access to customers ‘ data : “ Apple has never worked with any government agency from any area to create a ‘backdoor ‘ in any of our products or services. We have besides never allowed any government access to our servers. And we never will. ” [ 271 ] In 2015 the Electronic Frontier Foundation awarded Apple five out of five stars “ commend [ ing ] Apple for its strong stance regarding drug user rights, foil, and privacy. ” [ 272 ] Apple io in combination with their specific hardware uses crypto-shredding when activating the “ Erase all content and settings ” by obliterating all the keys in ‘ effaceable storage ‘. This renderes all drug user data on the device cryptographically inaccessible. [ 273 ]

reception and bequest

The master iPhone has been described as “ rotatory ”, [ 274 ] a “ game-changer ” for the fluid phone diligence, [ 275 ] [ 276 ] [ 277 ] [ 278 ] and has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world ‘s most valuable publicly traded companies by 2011. [ 279 ] Newer iterations have besides received praise, such as being called “ the best phone ”, [ 280 ] although in more late years this has frequently not been the case. [ 281 ] The iPhone attracts users of all ages, [ 35 ] and besides consumer function, the iPhone has besides been adopted for business purposes. [ 282 ] Research has shown that iPhones are normally associated with wealth, and that the average iPhone drug user has 40 % more annual income than the average Android user. [ 283 ] [ 284 ] Women are more likely than men to own an iPhone. [ 285 ] Before the dismissal of the iPhone, handset manufacturers such as Nokia and Motorola were enjoying record sales of cell phones based more on manner and stigmatize rather than technical invention. [ 286 ] The smartphone market, dominated at the time by BlackBerry OS and Windows Mobile devices, was a “ sedate, corporate-led smartphone substitution class ” focused on enterprise needs. Phones at the prison term were designed around carrier and business limits which were cautious with regards to bandwidth use and battery life. [ 287 ] [ 288 ] Phones were sold in a very large number of models, often segmented by marketing strategy, confusing customers and sapping engineer resources. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] For example, phones marketed at business were much intentionally stripped of cameras or the ability to play music and games. [ 291 ] Apple ‘s approach was to intentionally simplify its product telephone line by offering barely one model a class for all customers while making it an expensive, high-end merchandise. Apple ‘s selling, building on successful ipod campaigns, helped the earphone become a mass-market product with many buyers on launch day. Some market research has found that, compared to other products, a greater proportion of iPhone users are female. [ 292 ] In 2012, Ars Technica wrote that Apple had avoided the kind of “ patronizing ” marketing that competitors used to sell low-quality, costly products to women. [ 293 ] When then-CEO of Research in Motion Mike Lazaridis pried open an iPhone, his impression was of a Mac stuff into a cellular telephone, as it used much more memory and processing office than the smartphones on the marketplace at the time. [ 287 ] [ 288 ] With its capacitive touch screen and consumer-friendly design, the iPhone basically changed the mobile diligence ; Steve Jobs proclaimed in 2007 that the earphone was not equitable a communication tool but a way of life. [ 294 ] The dominant mobile operating systems at the time such as Symbian, BlackBerry OS, and Windows Mobile were not designed to handle tasks beyond communication and basic functions. These operating systems never focused on applications and developers, and due to infighting among manufacturers a well as the complexity of developing on their low-memory hardware, they never developed a thrive ecosystem like Apple ‘s App Store or Android ‘s Google Play. [ 294 ] [ 295 ] iPhone OS ( renamed io in 2010 ) was designed with capabilities such as multitasking and graphics to meet future consumer demands. [ 291 ] Many services were provided by mobile carriers, who often extensively custom-make devices. meanwhile, Apple ‘s decision to base its OS on OS X had the unexpected benefit of allowing OS X developers to quickly expand into io development. [ 296 ] Rival manufacturers have been forced to spend more on software and growth costs to catch up to the iPhone. The iPhone ‘s success has led to a decay in sales of high-end fashion phones and business-oriented smartphones such as Vertu and BlackBerry, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as Nokia. [ 294 ] [ 297 ] Nokia realised the limitations of its operate system Symbian and attempted to develop a more advanced system, Maemo, without success. It ultimately agreed to a technology-sharing manage and then a takeover from Microsoft. [ 298 ] Before the iPhone, “ Handsets were viewed largely as cheap, disposable lures, massively subsidized to snare subscribers and lock them into using the carriers ‘ proprietorship services. ” however, Wired wrote, “ Apple retained complete control over the design, manufacture, and marketing of the iPhone ”, meaning that it and not the carrier would control the software updates, and by extension security system patches. By contrast, Google has allowed carriers and OEMs to dictate the “ pace of upgrades and pre-load phones with their own software on top of Android “. As a result, many Android OEMs often lag months behind Google ‘s secrete of the following iteration of Android ; although Google Nexus and Pixel devices are guaranteed two years of operate system updates and a one-third extra year for security. however, Apple has supported older iterations of iPhones for over four years. [ 27 ] Some of the newer generations of iPhone have hit six years of defend. [ 299 ]


Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters. [ 300 ] Apple had achieved a 1.1 % worldwide mobile phone share for the year 2008 ; [ 301 ] in the smartphone market it held an 8.2 % parcel. [ 302 ] Sales in the fourthly quarter of 2008 temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion ‘s ( RIM ) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile telephone manufacturer by tax income, after Nokia and Samsung [ 303 ] ( however, some of this income is deferred [ 304 ] ). Numbers were lower in the inaugural three quarters of 2009 until the fourth stern surpassed sales of Q4 2008. [ 305 ] Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal class 2010, a sum of 73.5 million iPhones had been sold. [ 306 ] By 2010, the iPhone had a grocery store share of scantily 4 % of all cellular telephone phones ; however, Apple pulled in more than 50 % of the sum profit that global cellular telephone sales generated. [ 307 ] Apple sold 14.1 million iPhones in the one-third quarter of 2010, representing a 91 % whole increase over the year-ago quarter, which was well ahead of IDC ‘s latest published estimate of 64 % emergence for the global smartphone market in the September quarter. Apple ‘s sales surpassed that of Research in Motion ‘s 12.1 million BlackBerry units sold in their most holocene quarter ended August 2010. [ 308 ] In the United States grocery store alone for the third quarter of 2010, while there were 9.1 million Android-powered smartphones shipped for 43.6 % of the grocery store, Apple io was the number two earphone operating system with 26.2 % but the 5.5 million iPhones sold made it the most popular single device. [ 309 ] On March 2, 2011, at the iPad 2 launch event, Apple announced that they had sold 100 million iPhones cosmopolitan. [ 310 ] As a result of the achiever of the iPhone sales volume and high sell price, headlined by the iPhone 4S, Apple became the largest mobile handset seller in the worldly concern by tax income in 2011, surpassing long-time drawing card Nokia. [ 42 ] While the Samsung Galaxy S II proved more popular than the iPhone 4S in parts of Europe, the iPhone 4S was dominant in the United States. [ 311 ] By 2012, the two-year-old iPhone 4 had outsold the original iPhone, iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS models put in concert. [ 312 ] In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53 % of its tax income coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average sell monetary value of closely $ 660. The average sell price has remained fairly constant for most of the telephone ‘s life, hovering between $ 622 and $ 660. [ 44 ] For the eight largest phone manufacturers in Q1 2012, according to Horace Dediu at Asymco, Apple and Samsung combined to take 99 % of industry profits ( HTC took the remaining 1 %, while RIM, LG, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia all suffered losses ), with Apple earning 73 cents out of every dollar earned by the telephone makers. As the industry profits grew from $ 5.3 billion in the first base quarter of 2010 to $ 14.4 billion in the first base quarter of 2012 ( quadruple the profits in 2007 ), [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Apple had managed to increase its share of these profits. This is due to increasing carrier subsidies and the high sell prices of the iPhone, which had a minus consequence on the wireless carriers ( AT & T Mobility, Verizon, and Sprint ) who have seen their EBITDA servicing margins sink as they sold an increasing act of iPhones. [ 315 ] [ 316 ] [ 317 ] In the fourth quarter of 2012, the iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S were the best-selling handsets with sales of 27.4 million ( 13 % of smartphones worldwide ) and 17.4 million units, respectively, with the Samsung Galaxy S III in third base with 15.4 million. According to Strategy Analytics ‘ data, this was “ an impressive performance, given the iPhone portfolio ‘s premium price ”, adding that the Galaxy S III ‘s global popularity “ appears to have peaked ” ( the Galaxy S III was touted as an iPhone-killer by some in the press when it was released [ 318 ] [ 319 ] ). While Samsung has led in worldwide sales of smartphones, Apple ‘s iPhone line has still managed to top Samsung ‘s smartphone offerings in the United States, [ 320 ] with 21.4 % share and 37.8 % in that market, respectively. io grew 3.5 % to 37.8 %, while Android slid 1.3 % to fall to a 52.3 % share. [ 321 ] The stay exceed popularity of the iPhone despite growing Android rival was besides attributed to Apple being able to deliver io updates over the air, while Android updates are frequently impeded by carrier screen requirements and hardware cut, forcing consumers to purchase a newfangled Android smartphone to get the latest version of that OS. [ 322 ] however, by 2013, Apple ‘s grocery store share had fallen to 13.1 %, due to the surging popularity of the Android offerings. [ 323 ] Apple announced on September 1, 2013, that its iPhone trade-in program would be implemented at all of its 250 specialization stores in the US. For the program to become available, customers must have a valid sign and must purchase a new call, rather than plainly receive a credit to be used at a by and by date. A meaning part of the program ‘s goal is to increase the total of customers who purchase iPhones at Apple stores rather than carrier stores. [ 324 ] On September 20, 2013, the sales date of the iPhone 5S and 5C models, the longest ever queue was observed at the New York City flagship Apple store, in addition to prominent queues in San Francisco, and Canada ; however, locations throughout the global were identified for the anticipation of corresponding consumers. [ 325 ] Apple besides increased production of the gold-colored iPhone 5S by an extra one-third due to the particularly strong demand that emerged. [ 326 ] Apple had decided to introduce a gold mannequin after finding that gold was seen as a democratic sign of a luxury product among chinese customers. [ 327 ] Apple released its opening weekend sales results for the 5C and 5S models, showing an all-time high for the product ‘s sales figures, with nine million handsets sold—the previous criminal record was set in 2012, when five million handsets were sold during the possibility weekend of the 5 model. This was the first time that Apple has simultaneously launched two models and the inclusion of China in the list of markets contributed to the criminal record sales result. [ 328 ] Apple besides announced that, as of September 23, 2013, 200 million devices were running the io 7 update, making it the “ fastest software promote in history. ” [ 329 ] An Apple Store located at the Christiana Mall in Newark, Delaware, claimed the highest iPhones sales figures in November 2013. The storehouse ‘s eminent sales results have been attributed to the absence of a sales tax in the state of Delaware. [ 330 ] The finalization of a deal between Apple and China Mobile, the universe ‘s largest mobile network, was announced in late December 2013. The multi-year agreement provides iPhone access to over 760 million China Mobile subscribers. [ 331 ] In the first quarter of 2014, Apple reported that it had sold 51 million iPhones, an all-time quarterly record, compared to 47.8 million in the year-ago quarter. [ 332 ] [ 333 ] On July 27, 2016, Apple had announced that that have sold their 1 billionth iPhone. [ 334 ] During Apple ‘s earnings cry on January 27, 2021, Tim Cook said that there are immediately 1 billion iPhones active. [ 335 ]

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  1. a b 1 GB = 1 billion bytes, 1 TB = 1 trillion bytes


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