Vietnamese cash – Wikipedia

Cast round mint with square hole, currentness of Vietnam from 970 to 1948
Vietnamese cash ( chinese : 文 錢 văn tiền ; chữ Nôm : 銅 錢 đồng tiền ; french : sapèque ) [ a ] [ b-complex vitamin ] is a cast round coin with a square hole that was an official currency of Vietnam from the Đinh dynasty in 970 until the Nguyễn dynasty in 1945, and remained in circulation in North Vietnam until 1948. The lapp type of currentness circulated in China, Japan, Korea, and Ryūkyū for centuries. Though the majority of vietnamese cash coins throughout history were copper coins, lead, iron ( from 1528 ) and zinc ( from 1740 ) coins besides circulated alongside them often at fluctuating rates ( with 1 copper cash being worth 10 zinc cash in 1882 ). Coins made from metals of lower intrinsic value were introduced because of respective superstitions involving vietnamese people burying cash coins, as the problem of people burying cash coins became excessively a lot for the government. Almost all coins issued by government mints tended to be buried mere months after they had entered circulation. The vietnamese government began issuing coins made from an admixture of zinc, lead, and canister. As these cash coins tended to be very delicate, they would decompose faster if buried, which caused the vietnamese people to stop burying their coins. [ 8 ]

etymology [edit ]

Sapèque

[edit ]

The french term for cash coins, sapèque, comes from the Malay terms sa pek or sa pe meaning ‘one pe ( potassium ) ‘ ( pek, or pie, being a kind of currency ), which in turn come from the taiwanese parole peku / pak ( 百, vietnamese read : bách ) meaning ‘one-hundred ‘. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] The beginning of the term might have come from the fact that cash coins were typically strung together in strings of around a hundred pieces. [ 10 ] The french adopted the term sapèque in Macau and initially used it to refer to taiwanese cash coins but late besides applied the term for vietnamese cash coins. [ 10 ]

Slang names [edit ]

In the late nineteenth hundred Điêm slang spoken by the lower-class people of Saigon the term tể was used to refer to cash coins ; this term was an abbreviation of Tiền ( 錢 ). [ 12 ]

Currency units [edit ]

traditionally, the basic units of vietnamese currency were quan ( 貫, quán ), tiền, and đồng. One quan was 10 tiền, and one tiền was between 50 and 100 đồng, depending on the time menstruation. From the reign of Emperor Trần Thái Tông forth, 1 tiền was 69 đồng in average commercial transactions but 1 tiền was 70 đồng for official transactions. From the reign of Emperor Lê Lợi, 1 tiền was decreed to be 50 đồng. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties of Vietnam time period, beginning in 1528, coins were reduced from 24 millimetres ( 0.94 in ) to 23 millimetres ( 0.91 in ) in diameter and diluted with zinc and iron. The smaller coinage was called tiền gián or sử tiền, in contrast to the larger tiền quý ( literally, ‘valuable cash ‘ ) or cổ tiền. One quan tiền quý was equivalent to 600 đồng, while 1 quan tiền gián was only 360 đồng. [ 13 ] During the Later Lê Dynasty, 1 tiền was 60 đồng ; therefore, 600 đồng was 1 quan. During the Yuan Dynasty, vietnamese traders at the edge with China used the rate 1 tiền to 67 đồng. Zinc coins began to appear in Dai Viet during the eighteenth hundred. One copper ( đồng ) mint was worth 3 zinc ( kẽm ) coins. Beginning with the reign of Emperor Gia Long, both bull and zinc coins were in function. originally the two coins had peer value, but finally a copper coin rose to double the worth of a zinc coin, then ternary, then sixfold, until the reign of Emperor Thành Thái, it was worth ten times a zinc coin .

history [edit ]

diverse Lý dynasty cash coins on display at the National Museum of vietnamese History, Hanoi

Đinh and early Lê dynasties [edit ]

The first vietnamese coins were cast under the convention of the Đinh Dynasty ( 968–981 ) with the initiation of the Thái Bình Hưng Bảo ( 太 平 興 寶 ) under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh. [ 14 ] however, for the future two centuries coins would remain a curio in the daily lives of the coarse people, as barter would remain the dominant means of exchange under both the Đinh and early Lê dynasties. [ 15 ]

Lý dynasty [edit ]

The foremost cash coins of the Lý dynasty produced during the reign of Emperor Lý Thái Tổ were the Thuận Thiên Đại Bảo ( 順天大寶 ), these were among the largest early vietnamese cash coins with a diameter of 25.5 millimeters. All sleep together variants of this cash coin feature the chinese character Nguyệt ( 月 ) on the top of their change by reversal sides. broadly hurl coins produced by the vietnamese from the predominate of Lý Thái Tông and onwards were of diminutive quality compared to the taiwanese variants. [ 17 ] They were often produced with inferior metallic compositions and made to be thinner and lighter than the taiwanese wén due to a austere miss of copper that existed during the Lý dynasty. [ 18 ] This inspired chinese traders to recast chinese coins for export to Vietnam, which caused an abundance of neologism to circulate in the area, prompting the Lý politics to suspend the mintage of coins for five decades. [ 18 ]

Trần dynasty [edit ]

The product of inferior neologism continued under the Trần dynasty. [ 19 ] The product of both politics and individual cash coins happened at a large scale during the Trần period. [ 10 ] It was under the reign of Trần Dụ Tông that the most cash coins were shed of this period ; this was because of several calamities such as fail crops that plagued the state during his reign, which caused the Trần government to issue more coins to the populace as compensation. [ 19 ] The inner political struggles of the Trần dynasty ensured the cessation of the production of neologism, and as such, no coins were produced during the entire reign of the last seven monarchs of the Trần dynasty. [ 19 ]

Hồ dynasty [edit ]

Đại Trần Thông Bảo Hội Sao (大陳通寶會鈔) banknote of 1 mân (緡). ( 大陳通寶會鈔 ) bill of 1 ( 緡 ). During the Hồ dynasty the usage of coins was banned by Hồ Quý Ly in 1396 in favor of the Thông Bảo Hội Sao ( 通 寶 會 鈔 ) bill serial and ordain people to exchange their coinage for these banknotes ( with an commute rate of one Quân of copper coins for two Thông Bảo Hội Sao banknotes ). [ 20 ] Those who refused to exchange or continued to pay with coins would be executed and have their possessions taken by the government. Despite these harsh laws, identical few people actually preferable newspaper money and coins remained widespread in circulation, forcing the Hồ dynasty to retract their policies. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] The Thông Bảo Hội Sao banknotes of the Hồ dynasty featured designs with auspicious clouds ( one tiền ), turtles ( two tiền ), Kỳ lân ( three tiền ), Phượng hoàng ( five tiền ), and dragons ( one quán ). [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Under the Hồ dynasty cash coins with the inscriptions Thánh Nguyên Thông Bảo ( 聖元通寶 ) and Thiệu Nguyên Thông Bảo ( 紹元通寶 ) were introduced, but they would lone be manufactured in small numbers, though the Later Lê dynasty would produce coins with the same inscriptions less than half a century late in larger quantities. [ 26 ] [ 27 ]

late Lê, Mạc, and Revival Lê dynasties [edit ]

After Lê Thái Tổ came to power in 1428 by ousting out the Ming dynasty ending the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, Lê Thái Tổ enacted modern policies to improve the quality of the manufacture of coinage leading to the production of coins with both excellent craft and alloy compositions that rivaled that of the best contemporary chinese coinage. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] The Mạc dynasty, which usurped ability between the years 1528 to 1592, besides minted its own neologism but they began to use zinc and iron, which were cheaper metals, and they further allowed private coinage to develop which decreased the quality of the neologism. [ 10 ] After the Lê dynasty returned to world power they tried to combat these monetary practices, but the deficit of copper ( as the mines where the copper came from were by and large in areas controlled by China ) and the class of the country between the two rival lordships ( or principalities ) of the Trịnh and Nguyễn lords made these measures ineffective. [ 10 ] between 1633 and 1637 the Dutch East India Company sold 105,835 strings of 960 cash coins ( or 101,600,640 văn ) to the Nguyễn lords in Vĩnh Lạc Thông Bảo ( 永 樂 通 寶 ), and Khoan Vĩnh Thông Bảo ( 寬 永 通 寶 ) coins. This was because the Japanese had restricted deal, forcing the southern vietnamese traders to purchase their copper coins from the Dutch Republic quite than from japanese merchants as earlier. This craft run to a excess of copper in the territory of the Nguyễn lords, allowing them to use the metallic element ( which at the time was scarce in the north ) for more practical applications such as nails and door hinges. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] After this, Nagasaki trade coins, which were specifically minted for the vietnamese market, besides started being traded and circulating in the northern parts of Vietnam where the smaller coins would much be melted down for utensils and only circulated in Hanoi, while larger Nagasaki craft coins circulated all over Vietnam. [ 30 ] From the Dương Hòa earned run average ( 1635–1643 ) under Lê Thần Tông until 1675 no coins were cast due to the political agitation. At the turn of the eighteenth century Lê Dụ Tông opened a number of copper mines and renewed the production of high quality coinage. [ 29 ] During the Vĩnh Thịnh ( 永盛, 1706–1719 ) period of Lê Dụ Tông the first large-format cash coins were issued ; they had a diameter of 50.5 mm and a weight of 33.13 grams. [ 10 ] From 1719 the production of form copper coins ceased for two decades and taxes were more heavily lifted on the taiwanese population as Mandarins could receive a promotion in rank and file for every 600 strings of cash ( or 600,000 coins ). [ 29 ] Under Lê Hiển Tông a large variety of Cảnh Hưng ( 景 興 ) coins were cast with varying descriptions on the obverse. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] In fact it is thought that more variations of the Cảnh Hưng mint exist than of any other oriental cash mint in history. [ 35 ] There were besides new large Cảnh Hưng coins introduced with denominations of 50 and 100 văn [ 33 ] and from 1740, assorted provincial mint marks were added on the reverses of coins. [ 33 ] Currently there are around 80 know different kinds of Cảnh Hưng coins. This diverseness exists because the Lê government was in awful motivation of coins to pay for its expenditures, while it needed to collect more taxes in coins, so it began to mint a lot of coins. late to fulfill this need, the Lê legalised the previously damaging workshops that were minting inferior coins in 1760 in regulate to meet the market ‘s eminent need for coinage ; this backfired as the people found the huge diverseness in quality and quantity confusing. [ 36 ] [ 33 ] In 1775, after capturing Thuận Hóa from the Nguyễn lords, Trịnh Sâm stipulated that 3 zinc cash coins from Nam Hà would be accepted for 1 zinc cash coin from Bắc Hà. [ 37 ]

Tây Sơn dynasty [edit ]

Under Nguyễn Nhạc the description of Thất Phân ( 七 分 ) was first gear added to the reverses of some coins indicating their slant ; this continued under the Nguyễn dynasty. [ 38 ] Under the reign of Nguyễn Huệ, Quang Trung Thông Bảo ( 光中通寶 ) cash coins were produced made in two different types of metal, one series of copper and one series of tin, american samoa well as alloys between the two or copper coins of red copper. [ 38 ]

Nguyễn dynasty [edit ]

During the Nguyễn dynasty period in addition to their circulate zinc and copper-alloy cash coins the government besides produced silver and gold cash coins. [ 39 ]

independent Nguyễn dynasty and french Cochinchina [edit ]

Under the Gia Long Emperor three kinds of cash coins were produced in smaller denominations made of copper, lead, and zinc. [ 40 ] According to the book Đại Nam thực lục chính biên the first cash coins with the dedication Gia Long Thông Bảo ( 嘉隆通寶 ) were cast in the year Gia Long 2 ( 1802 ). Under the Gia Long Emperor mints were opened in Bắc Thành ( Hanoi ) and Gia Định ( Hồ Chí Minh City ). [ 39 ] The cash coins of the Tây Sơn dynasty were initially entirely allowed to circulate for 5 years after the ascension of Gia Long. [ 39 ] According to a text file from the year Gia Long 16 ( 1817 ) the government of the Nguyễn dynasty ordered for the destruction of all “ fake cash coins ” from circulation explaining that the anterior currency situation was chaotic. [ 39 ] The “ talk through one’s hat cash coins ” were hush allowed to circulate in the year Gia Long 15 and must now be destroyed. [ 39 ] All payments and salaries for public services and government employees must be expressed in zinc cash coins, government employees must collect all “ forge cash coins ” they have and store it in a politics warehouse to late be melted gloomy and exchanged for the newly minted zinc cash coins. [ 39 ] The zinc cash coins were besides ordered to circulate in the southern regions and merchants were ordered to carry them with them whenever they would engage in trade to promote their circulation. [ 39 ] Throughout most of the Nguyễn dynasty period, the government tried to exclude money it termed Tiền cấm ( 錢禁, “ Forbidden money ” ) from circulation. The Tiền cấm included the be three categories :

  • 1: Tây Sơn dynasty coinage, because of the Nguyễn dynasty’s dislike of the Tây Sơn dynasty, which it viewed as illegitimate, it tried to exclude its coinage from circulation. But because of the extensive issuance of cash coins during this period it wasn’t until 1822 that the Nguyễn could successfully discourage their circulation by fixing an exchange rate of 2 Tây Sơn dynasty copper-alloy cash coins for 1 Nguyễn dynasty zinc cash coin.
  • 2: Black money, including stolen money.
  • 3: Inferior quality money created by Chinese merchants, these cash coins were often of inferior quality and contained a high percentage of lead.

According to the Đại Nam Thực lục chính biên, there were several different types of Gia Long Thông Bảo cash coins cast. [ 39 ] A bronze cash coin with the inscription Thất phần ( 七分 ) in seal script on its reverse, a thick zinc cash coin with the dedication Nhất phần on its overrule, and a copper-alloy cash coin with dots on its reverse english symbolising the sunlight and moon. [ 39 ] The 7 phần zinc cash coins started being made from the year Gia Long 12 ( 1813 ) onwards. [ 39 ]
Copper-alloy and zinc cash coins issued under the predominate of the Gia Long Emperor. Since the reign of the Gia Long Emperor, zinc cash coins ( 銅鐱, Đồng kẽm ) had replaced the custom of bull and boldness cash coins and formed the basis of the vietnamese currency system. [ 40 ] Under Gia Long the standard 1 văn appellation coins weighed seven phần and under the Minh Mạng Emperor six phần ( approximately 2.28 grams ) which would remain the criterion for future rulers. [ 40 ] Zinc cash coins produced in Hanoi under the Tự Đức Emperor had the mint mark Hà Nội ( 河 內 ) on them, with there being another mint in Sơn Tây ( 山 西 ). [ 42 ] From the Gia Long until the Thiệu Trị periods 1 copper-alloy cash coin was valued at 1.2 to 1.3 zinc cash coins, from the Tự Đức onwards they were valued at 1.3 to 1.4 zinc cash coins each. From 1837 during the first gear year of the reign of the Minh Mạng Emperor, Mạch ( 陌 ) administration cash coins were issued ; these cash coins feature Minh Mạng Thông Bảo ( 明命通寶 ) on their obverses but have eight characters on their reverses. One Mạch coins would be continued under subsequent rulers of the Nguyễn dynasty. [ 40 ] In 1849 the Tự Đức Emperor was forced to legalise the secret product of zinc cash coins as besides many illegal mints kept being established throughout both Đại Nam and China. These privately minted zinc cash coins were allowed angstrom long as they circulated according to their compensate weights. however, in 1871 the production of zinc cash coins stopped as many mines were being blocked by chinese pirates and the continue production of these coins would be excessively expensive. [ 40 ] other reasons for the discontinuance of zinc cash coins despite them being indispensable to the general populace were because they were heavy compared to their nominative rate and the metallic was quite brittle. [ 40 ] Following the constitution of the french colony of Cochinchina the chaotic monetary situation of Đại Nam sternly worsened as Qing taiwanese merchants quickly took advantage of it and started producing poor timbre cash coins to bring to the colony where no regulations against their activities existed. The Tự Đức Emperor tried to search Qing merchant ships, make outposts block their introduction, and banish Qing chinese merchants from bringing in besides much money. Though by 1879 the Nguyễn woo was forced to accept the copper-alloy Hành dị dạng tiền ( deformed money ) at a value of 3 zinc cash coins, provided that the cash coin in motion was quite like in quality to the autochthonal vietnamese currency. To the french, zinc neologism besides presented a huge trouble since the colonization of Cochinchina in 1859 as the exchange between french francs and zinc văn meant that a large number of zinc coins were exchanged for the french franc. [ 40 ] Zinc cash coins often broke during exile as the strings that kept them together would much snap. The coins would fall on the footing and a great number of them would break into pieces ; these coins were besides less tolerant to oxidation, causing them to corrode faster than other coinages. [ 40 ]

“ Another dangerous disadvantage consisted in the total absence of token coinages other than the inconvenient sapèque one of zinc : one needed an artillery van to go commute 1,000 francs in ligatures for the one sapèques, since it had the weight of a barrel and half …. and at the market, the chicken weighed some times less than its price in currency. ”

– J. Silvestre, Monnaies et de Médailles de l’Annam et de la Cochinchine Française ( 1883 ) .
prior to 1849 brass coins had become an extreme rarity and only circulated in the provinces surrounding the capital cities of Vietnam, but under Tự Đức raw regulations and ( uniform ) standards for copper cash coins were created to help promote their usage. [ 40 ] Between 1868 and 1872 brass section coins were lone about 50 % copper, and 50 % zinc. [ 40 ] due to the natural scarcity of copper in Vietnam the state always lacked the resources to produce sufficient copper neologism for circulation. [ 40 ] Under Tự Đức big coins with the denomination of 60 văn were introduced. These coins were ordered to circulate at a respect of 1 tiền, but their intrinsic value was importantly lower so they were badly received ; the production of these coins was promptly discontinued in favor of 20, 30, 40, and 50 văn coins known as Đồng Sao. In 1870 Tự Đức Bảo Sao cash coins of 2, 3, 8, and 9 Mạch were issued. [ 40 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Large denomination coins were largely used for tax collection as their relatively low intrinsic value lowered their spending power on the grocery store. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] In 1882, at the time when Eduardo Toda y Güell ‘s Annam and its minor currency was published, entirely two politics mints remained in mathematical process : one in Hanoi, and one in Huế. however, secret mints were allowed to cast cash coins with the license of the government, and a big total of cash coins were besides imported from afield as at that time the portuguese colony of Macau had six mints with twelve furnaces producing 600,000 cash coins for Vietnam on a daily basis. Cash coins circulated in the nineteenth century along with silver and gold bars, adenine well as silver and amber coins weighed in tiền. [ 40 ] Denominations up to ten tiền were minted, with the seven tiền coins in amber and silver being similar in size and weight to the spanish eight substantial and eight portuguese escudo pieces. [ 40 ] These coins continued to be minted into the twentieth hundred, albeit increasingly supplanted by french colonial neologism. [ 40 ] After the introduction of modern neologism by the french in 1878, cash coins remained in general circulation in french Cochinchina. [ 48 ] initially the french attempted to supplement cash coins in circulation by punching round holes into french 1 centime coins and shipping a large measure of them to french Cochinchina, but these coins did not see much circulation and the Cochinchinese people largely rejected them. [ 49 ] On 7 April and 22 April 1879, the governor of french Cochinchina had decreed that the new designs for coins with Cochinchine Française on them would be accepted with the denominations 2 sapèques ( cash coins ), 1 penny, 10 cents, 20 cents, 50 cents, and the kurus. All coins except for the kurus were allowed to be issued, which allowed for spanish dollars and mexican reals to continue circulating. The Paris Mint produced the newly machine-struck 2 sapèques Cochinchine Française cash coins. These French-produced bronze cash coins weighed 2 grams and were valued at 1⁄500 kurus. They saw well more circulation than the previous french attack at creating cash coins, but were still largely disliked by the Cochinchinese people. The local anesthetic population calm preferred their own Tự Đức Thông Bảo ( 嗣德通寶 ) cash coins despite only being valued at 1⁄1000 kurus .

Under french convention [edit ]

In the year 1883 the Harmand Treaty was signed, which was replaced in 1884 with the Patenôtre Treaty. These treaties were created following the french conquest of Đại Nam, which established the french protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. While these two countries were in a subordinate relationship with France, they were placid nominally ruled by the Nguyễn Empire and the old currency system continued to be used and produced by the politics of the Nguyễn dynasty there. Despite the late introduction of the french Indochinese piaster, zinc and copper-alloy cash coins would continue to circulate among the vietnamese populace throughout the nation as the elementary form of neologism, as the majority of the population lived in extreme poverty until 1945 ( and 1948 in some areas ). They were valued at the rates of about 500–600 cash coins for one kurus. [ 51 ] The necessitate for coins was alone a minor character in the lives of most vietnamese people at the clock time, as barter remained more common since all coins were bartered on the commercialize according to their current intrinsic values. [ 49 ] During the Kiến Phúc period ( 2 December 1883 – 31 July 1884 ), the regent Nguyễn Văn Tường accepted bribes from Qing chinese merchants to allow them to bring their tiền sềnh ( 錢浧, “ extraordinary money ” ) depicting the predominate era of the Tự Đức Emperor into the country. Nguyễn Văn Tường forced people to accept and spend this regretful quality chinese caricature money, those who refused to accept it could face the penalty of arrest. This money is described as being “ very ugly, excessively thin, and highly light ” ( weighing merely about 1 gram ), according to descriptions it was so lighter in fact that these cash coins can float on water. Roman Catholic missionaries active in Đại Nam took advantage of bad condition of this newfangled money to propagate the idea that it was a augury that the Nguyễn dynasty was in decline. These cash coins have sometimes been mistaken for the 17th and eighteenth century Tiền gián ( with the inscriptions of Thiên Thánh Nguyên Bảo and An Pháp Nguyên Bảo ). however, these earlier low timbre money was still heavier and more valuable than the about worthless tiền sềnh brought into the area by merchants from the Qing dynasty by the conclusion of the nineteenth hundred. Following the administration of french Indochina, a fresh adaptation of the french 2 sapèques was produced from 1887 to 1902, which was besides valued at 1⁄500 piaster and was probably forced on the vietnamese when they were paid for their goods and services by the french, as the predilection even was for autochthonal cash coins. Under french administration the Nguyễn politics issued the Kiến Phúc Thông Bảo ( 建福通寶 ), Hàm Nghi Thông Bảo ( 咸宜通寶 ), Đồng Khánh Thông Bảo ( 同慶通寶 ), Thành Thái Thông Bảo ( 成泰通寶 ), Duy Tân Thông Bảo ( 維新通寶 ) cash coins of unlike alloy compositions and weights. Each of these cash coins had their own value against the french Indochinese piaster. Because the exchange values between the native cash coins and ash grey piastres were confusing, the local vietnamese people were often cheated by the money changers during this period. The Kiến Phúc Thông Bảo was blend with iron when it was minted and featured blank change by reversal sides. [ 39 ] several batches of Kiến Phúc Thông Bảo cash coins were produced, but due to the fact that the french Army was putting atmospheric pressure on the Huế Court the throne changed hands respective times and the rule of the Kiến Phúc Emperor was very abbreviated, so not much attention to the economy was paid by government. [ 39 ] Because of these factors only a very modest phone number of Kiến Phúc Thông Bảo cash coins were minted which confirm the newly Emperor ‘s reign era name, but they did n’t have a large effect on the money in circulation as their quantity was besides humble to make a deviation. [ 39 ] The Hàm Nghi Thông Bảo cash coins were besides lone minted in small quantities due to his short predominate. [ 39 ] These cash coins were made from copper-alloys and have the inscription “ Lục Văn ” ( 六文 ) on their invert indicating their denomination. [ 39 ] During the reign of the Đồng Khánh Emperor two series of Đồng Khánh Thông Bảo cash coins were minted ; [ 39 ] the foremost series were cast in 1776 with a diameter of 26 millimeters, and the second series in 1887 with a diameter of 23 millimeters. [ 39 ] All cash coins from this earned run average had blank reverse sides. [ 39 ] In 1894 the Note sur la circulation monétaire et les moyens d’échange dans les colonies françaises et pays de protectorat, d’après les documents officiels recueillis par l’administration des colonies reported that aside from the kurus and zinc and copper-alloy cash coins other autochthonal currencies circulated in the Nguyễn dynasty, these included a silver cash mint which was valued at 2 strings each, a ash grey sycee weighing 1 Lượng was valued at 12 strings, a silver Nen was valued at 140 strings, a gold Lượng valued at 300 strings, and a amber Nen valued at 3000 strings. [ 57 ] It was reported that asian merchants used conventional silver bars made from mellow coins that were withdrawn from circulation, these were valued at 15 piastres. [ 57 ] In Tonkin zinc cash coins remained in circulation while they only continued to circulate in some regions of Annam. [ 57 ] In 1894 a string of cash coins in Tonkin was composed of 600 zinc cash coins divided into rows of 10 coins each ( called a tiền ), while in Annam a string was composed of 100 copper-alloy cash coins divided into rows of 10. [ 57 ] At the meter 8~10 strings of cash coins were deserving a piaster. [ 57 ] In the french protectorate of Cambodia a string would contain 450 to 500 vietnamese cash coins, with 8 cash coins being valued at 1 penny. [ 57 ] On 1 August 1898 it was reported in the Bulletin Economique De L’Indo-Chine article; Le Monnaie De L’Annam that the Huế Mint was closed in 1887, and in 1894 the vomit of cash coins had started at the Thanh Hóa Mint. Between the years 1889 and 1890 the Huế Mint produced 1321 strings of 600 small boldness Thành Thái Thông Bảo cash coins. [ 58 ] These little brass cash coins were valued at six zinc cash coins. [ 58 ] In the year 1893, large boldness Thành Thái Thông Bảo cash coins with a denomination of ten-spot văn ( 十文, thập văn ), or ten zinc cash coins, started being produced by the Huế Mint. [ 58 ] The production of Thành Thái Thông Bảo cash coins were resumed at the Thanh Hóa Mint between the years 1894 and 1899. [ 58 ] Under Emperor Thành Thái gold and silver coinages were besides produced. [ 58 ] In the year 1902 the french end production of machine-struck cash coins at the Paris Mint and completely deferred the product of cash coins back to the politics of the Nguyễn dynasty. There were people in Hanoi and Saigon that silent preferred the french machine-struck cash coins, so a committee was set up in Hanoi that created a machine-struck zinc cash coin valued at 1⁄600 piaster date 1905 but issued in 1906. however, this series of cash coins was not well-received by either the local or the french population as the coins were brittle, prone to corrosion, and easily broken, so their product was quickly halted. In arrange to try to standardise the substitution pace between the french Indochinese kurus and cash coins, the Resident-Superior of the french protectorate of Tonkin fixed the local Tonkinese exchange rates every calendar month. This was done to prevent rampant speculation by chinese merchants and Nguyễn dynasty mandarins. [ 59 ] Money changers broadly tended to value the kurus based on its weight in flatware, but besides according to the paragon of its assume, and even according to the purity of its ash grey. [ 59 ] The official commute rates were not rigorously applied and the money changers often estimated their own values to individual piaster coins. [ 59 ] In 1932 it was reported by L’Éveil économique de l’Indochine ( “ The Economic Awakening of Indochina ” ) that cash coins were increasingly becoming barely in Annam and Tonkin, the L’Éveil économique de l’Indochine advised the government of the Nguyễn dynasty to start producing zinc Bảo Đại Thông Bảo cash coins to counter the scarcity of low denomination currencies, at this clock time zinc cash coins were distillery circulating in Annam while very few of them were left in Tonkin. [ 60 ] On 29 September 1939 the Hanoian newspaper l’Effort Indochinois reported that the governments of french Indochina and the Nguyễn dynasty pursued a policy called an muoi, which sought to stabilise the exchange rate between cash coins and the kurus at 360:1. [ 61 ] During this period there was a market liquid crisis worsened by the hoard of humble denomination cash coins by the general populace causing massive deflation of cash coins. [ 61 ] There has been a serious devaluation of the kurus in Annam, among the solutions proposed by the government of french Indochina was the increase production of paper money. [ 61 ] Despite starting the an muoi policy in 1937, by 1939 the exchange pace between the piaster and cash coins was at 5 strings per piaster while in some rural areas the monetary value of the kurus went down ampere a lot as 3 strings per piaster. [ 61 ] The deflation of cash coins proved to be very damaging to the economy and local trade. [ 61 ] The reason why these exchange rates were unstable was because of the fact that cash coins remained mugwump of the piaster, despite their fixed exchange rates. [ 61 ] l’Effort Indochinois reported that in Tonkin the Khải Định Thông Bảo and Bảo Đại Thông Bảo cash coins were less medium to the deflationary blackmail caused by hoarding than older cash coins as they were n’t being overvalued in the market in relative to the french Indochinese piaster. [ 61 ] As Tonkinese people had a a lot higher standard of survive than the Annamites, the speed of money was similarly faster and coins like the 10 cents, 20 cents, Etc. mingled more with the cash coins in Tonkin than they did in Annam. [ 61 ] l’Effort Indochinois noted that many causes of the deflation and hoarding were more psychological in nature rather than virtual, noting that the new cash coins that were being produced in Tonkin was manufactured in a different way from the old ones ( machine-struck vs. draw ) and that this development was even more recent than banknotes. [ 61 ] meanwhile in Annam boastfully quantities of Minh Mạng Thông Bảo, Thiệu Trị Thông Bảo, Etc. a well as millennium old cash coins remained in circulation as the population stubbornly held onto them. [ 61 ] In fact, there remained a solid predilection for cast Bảo Đại Thông Bảo cash coins over machine-struck ones of the lapp dedication. [ 61 ] This was as the population preferred to keep with the traditional currency system and that cast cash coins were seen as “ good old sapèques ” from “ the good honest-to-god days “ as opposed to both machine-struck cash coins and the french Indochinese piaster who saw it as “ mod inventions contrastive with their traditional lifestyles ”. [ 61 ] To combat this brain l’Effort Indochinois advised the government to mint cash coins of different models and metals and to give them a clearly defined prize in relation back to the divisionaries of the kurus and introduce them to the Annamese countryside, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as to introduce the machine-struck Bảo Đại Thông Bảo that were already circulating in Tonkin into rural Annam. [ 61 ]

Read more: Possum Magic Coins

The last sovereign whose name was cast on cash coins, Emperor Bảo Đại, died in 1997 .

democratic Republic of Vietnam [edit ]

After the democratic Republic of Vietnam declared their independence in 1945 they began issuing their own money, but cash coins continued to circulate in the remote control areas of Bắc Bộ and Trung Bộ where there was a miss of xu, hào, and đồng coins for the population. The democratic Republic of Viet Nam Decree 51/SL of 6 January 1947 officially set the exchange rate at twenty vietnamese cash coins for one North vietnamese đồng making them equal to five xu each. vietnamese cash coins continued to formally circulate in the democratic Republic of Vietnam until 13 April 1948. [ 49 ]

aftermath [edit ]

During the Vietnam War a large number of vietnamese numismatic charms with both authentic american samoa well as illusion coin inscriptions were produced in South Vietnam to be sold to foreigners interested in collecting vietnamese antiques. [ 62 ] These illusion inscriptions included legends like Quang Trung Trọng Bảo ( 光中重寶 ), [ 63 ] Hàm Nghi Trọng Bảo ( 咸宜重寶 ), [ 64 ] and Khải Định Trọng Bảo ( 啓定重寶 ), [ 65 ] the latter of which was based on the Khải Định Thông Bảo ( 啓定通寶 ) .

list of vietnamese cash coins [edit ]

official and semi-official cash coins [edit ]

Most vietnamese cash coins tend to be read top-botton-right-left, but variants exist where the characters are read clockwise. During the about 1000 years that vietnamese bull cash coins were produced, they often significantly changed quality, debase, size, and craft. In general, the coins bear the era identify ( south ) of the monarch ( Niên hiệu/ 年號 ) but may besides be inscribed with batch marks, denominations, assorted characters, and decorations. Unlike Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Ryūkyūan cash coins that always have the inscription in entirely one font, vietnamese cash coins tend to be more idiosyncratic, bearing sometimes even handwriting, Seal script, and even Running script on the same coins for different characters, and it is not uncommon for one coin to be cast about entirely in one font but with an odd character in another. Though early vietnamese coins often bore the calligraphic stylus of the chinese Khai Nguyên Thông Bảo ( 開元通寶 ) coin, particularly those from the Đinh until the Trần dynasties. [ 66 ] The following coins were produced to circulate in Vietnam :

Orange text indicates that the cash mint has been mentioned by diachronic sources but that no mod authentic specimen has ever been recovered. Green text indicates that this cash coin has been recovered in mod times but is not mentioned in any historical chronicles. Blue text indicates that the cash coin has its own article on Wikipedia. [ c ] (中) indicates that there exists a chinese, Khitan, Tangut, Jurchen, Mongol, and/or Manchu cash coin ( including rebel coinages ) with the same caption as the vietnamese cash mint.
further read : list of chinese cash coins by inscription. Fuchsia text = Indicates that this is a misattributed cash coin ( these cash coins were noted by diachronic sources or standard catalogues but late turned out to be misattributed ). Gold text Indicates that this is a juke or illusion referenced by Eduardo Toda y Güell in his Annam and its Minor Currency ( pdf ), the possible being of these cash coins have not been verified by any late works .

Unidentified vietnamese coins from 1600 and subsequently [edit ]

At assorted times many rebel leaders proclaimed themselves as lords ( 主 ), kings ( 王 ), and emperors ( 帝 ), and had produced their own neologism with their predominate names and titles on them, but as their rebellions would prove unsuccessful or brief, their reigns and titles would go live in vietnamese history. Therefore, coins produced by their rebellions can not easily be classified. Coins were besides often privately cast and these coins were sometimes of high quality or well-made imitations of imperial neologism, though frequently they would bear the lapp inscriptions as already circulating neologism and sometimes they would have “ newly invented ” inscriptions. [ 107 ] The Nguyễn lords that ruled over Southern Vietnam had besides produced their own coinage at versatile times as they were the de facto kings of the South, but as their convention was unofficial, it is presently unknown which coins can be attributed to which Nguyễn overlord. Since Edouard Toda made his list in 1882, several of the coins that he had described as “ originating from the Quảng Nam state ” have been ascribed to the Nguyễn lords that the numismatists of his meter could not identify. During the rule of the Nguyễn lords, many foundries for private mintage were besides opened and many of these coins bear the lapp inscriptions as government-cast neologism or even bear newly invented inscriptions, making it hard to attribute these coins. [ 108 ] The adopt list contains vietnamese cash coins whose origins can not be ( presently ) established :

Machine-struck cash coins made by the french government [edit ]

versatile cash coins produced by the french government for circulation in Vietnam. During the meter that Vietnam was under french administration, the french started minting cash coins for circulation inaugural for within the colony of Cochinchina and then for the other regions of Vietnam. These coins were minted in Paris and were all struck as opposed to the contemporaneous cast coinage that already circulated within Vietnam. [ 119 ] [ 120 ] [ 121 ] [ 122 ] After the french had annexed Cochinchina from the Vietnamese, cash coins would continue to circulate in the area and depending on their system of weights and metal ( as vietnamese cash coins made from copper, can, and zinc circulated simultaneously at the meter at fluctuating rates ) were accepted at six hundred to one thousand cash coins for a individual Mexican or spanish eight real coin or one kurus. [ 49 ] In 1870 the north german company Dietrich Uhlhorn started privately minting machine-struck Tự Đức Thông Bảo ( 嗣德通寶 ) coins as the demand for cash coins in french Cochinchina was high. [ 49 ] The coin weighed four grams which was conclusion to the official weight of ten phần ( 3.7783 grams ), which was the standard used by the imperial government at the prison term. Around 1875 the french introduced hole one-cent coins styled after the vietnamese cash. [ 49 ] In 1879 the french introduced the Cochinchinese Sapèque with a noun phrase value of 1⁄500 kurus, but the vietnamese population at the clock time silent preferred the honest-to-god Tự Đức Thông Bảo coins despite their lower noun phrase value. [ 49 ] The system of weights and size of the french Indochinese one-cent mint was reduced and the mint was holed in 1896 in order to appear more similar to cash coins. This was done to reflect the practice of stringing coins together and carrying them on a belt or perch because oriental garments at the time did not have pockets. [ 49 ] The french production of machine-struck cash coins was halted in 1902. [ 49 ] As there were people in Hanoi and Saigon that did not want to give up on the production of machine-struck cash coins, a committee decided to strike zinc Sapèque coins with a nominal rate of 1⁄600 kurus. These coins were produced at the Paris Mint and were dated 1905 despite being put into circulation entirely in 1906. [ 49 ] These coins corroded and broke quite well which made them unpopular and their product quickly ceased. [ 49 ]

“ Annamites are not content with the current state of affairs. They complain about the mode of the farms and monopolies, which obliges them to pay fees, paralyses the little trade and is an obstacle to much of trades of which a great part of the population live. The embarrassment is hush increased by the progressive disappearance of the zinc currency, adapted so well to the condition of the needy Annamites. It still remains the root of all the small transactions. With two or three sapèques, the poor one can buy a fruit, a cake and therefore calm the pains of the hunger. But, as the Government does not manufacture them any more, those which were in circulation become increasingly rare, and the market feels it, with the great detriment of all. ”

– The 1907 Annual Report by missionary Mgr. Gendreau of the Groupe des Mission du Tonkin .
After Khải Định became Emperor in 1916, Hanoi reduced the funds to cast vietnamese cash coins, which had a dissatisfy impression on the vietnamese commercialize as the demand for cash coins remained high, thus another committee was formed in Hanoi that ordered the universe of machine-struck copper-alloy Khải Định Thông Bảo ( 啓定通寶 ) cash coins to be minted in Haiphong. These coins weighed more than the honest-to-god french Sapèques and were about 2.50 grams and were accepted at 1⁄500 kurus. [ 49 ] There were 27 million Khải Định Thông Bảo of the foremost discrepancy produced, while the second variant of the machine-struck Khải Định Thông Bảo had a coinage of 200 million. This was likely continued after the rise of Emperor Bảo Đại in 1926, which was normal as previous vietnamese emperors besides kept producing cash coins with the inscription of their predecessors for a menstruation of time. [ 49 ] Emperor Bảo Đại had ordered the creation of cast Bảo Đại Thông Bảo ( 保大通寶 ) cash coins again which weighed 3.2 gram in 1933, while the french simultaneously began minting machine-struck coins with the same inscription that weighed 1.36 grams and were probably valued at 1⁄1000 piaster. There were two variants of this cash coin, where one had a large 大 ( Đại ) while the other had a smaller 大. [ 125 ] [ 49 ]

commemorative cash coins [edit ]

Vạn Thọ Thông Bảo [edit ]

During the sixtieth birthday of Revival Lê dynasty Emperor Lê Hiển Tông in 1774, a particular Vạn Thọ Thông Bảo ( 萬夀通寶 ) amulet was cast ; these charms were much used to commemorate the birthday of an emperor butterfly as had happened in the Qing dynasty with the sixtieth birthdays of chinese emperors. The reason these charms are cast on this particular event is because sixty years symbolise a complete cycle of the ten-spot heavenly stems and the twelve earthly branches. [ 127 ] [ 128 ]

presentation coins and the Sapèque d’Honneur [edit ]

special cash coins were besides produced in the form of decorations given by the government of the Nguyễn dynasty until 1945. Like in Imperial China, these coins came in the imprint of presentation coins ( known in vietnamese as Tiền ), but after french colonization these extra cash mint awards known as Tiền were former besides awarded as European-style medals called the Sapèque d’Honneur ( ‘Cash coin of Honour ‘ ). [ 129 ] These presentation coin decorations came in multiple classes and were known as Đồng Tiền ( 銅錢, ‘Copper money ‘ ), Ngân Tiền ( 銀錢, ‘Silver money ‘ ), and Kim Tiền ( 金錢, ‘Gold money ‘ ). [ 129 ] The Sapèque d’Honneur decoration was further subdivided into the Sapèque d’Argent ( made of silver ) and the Sapèque d’Or ( made of gold ). [ 129 ] These decorations broadly took the supreme headquarters allied powers europe of silver or aureate cash coins equally well as other coinages issued by the Nguyễn dynasty, but would often have more elaborate designs and ( much ) different inscriptions. [ 129 ]

convalescence of cash coins in modern Vietnam [edit ]

In modern Vietnam the provide of undiscovered cash coins is quickly declining as large amounts of vietnamese cash coins were excavated during the 1980s and 1990s. In Vietnam the excavation of antiques such as cash coins is an diligence in itself and cash coins are largely dug up by farmers. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, a bombastic number of alloy detectors numbering in the many thousands were left behind in the former area of South Vietnam, which helped fuel the rise of this industry. The antique bronze industry is by and large concentrated in small rural villages where farmers rent metallic element detectors to search their own lands for bronze antiques to then either sell as bit or to dealers. These buyers purchase lumps of cash coins either by the kilogramme or long ton and hire skilled people to search through these lumps of cash coins for marketable specimens. These coins are then sold to other dealers in Vietnam, China, and Japan. During the zenith of the coin convalescence business in Vietnam, the phone number of bulge coins found on a monthly footing was fifteen tons. entirely approximately fifteen kilogrammes of those coins were marketable and the rest of the coins would be melted down as trash metal. As better alloy detectors that could search deeper were introduced, more vietnamese cash coins were discovered, but in mod times the provide of previously undiscovered vietnamese cash coins is quickly diminishing. [ 130 ] In modern times many vietnamese cash coins are found in slump shipwrecks which are mandated by vietnamese law to be the place of the vietnamese politics as salvage ships of which the owner was strange belong to the department of state. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] celebrated holocene large finds of cash coins in Vietnam include 100 kilogrammes of chinese cash coins and 35 kilogrammes of vietnamese cash coins unearthed in the province of Quảng Trị in 2007, [ 134 ] [ 135 ] 52.9 kilogrammes of Chinese and vietnamese cash coins unearthed in a cemetery in Haiphong in 2008, [ 136 ] 50 kilogrammes of cash coins in the province of Hà Nam in 2015, [ 137 ] and some Nagasaki trade coins in the province of Hà Tĩnh in 2018. [ 138 ] [ 139 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^văn (文) was first used in Vietnam in 1861 and the coins were referred to as đồng tiền (銅錢, copper coins) or simply as coins. Denominations of the Vietnamese cash coins were based on their weight and metal alloys and their value was determined by these aspects and their individual quality.[4][5] In English these types of coins are referred to as “cash coins”. The condition ( 文 ) was first used in Vietnam in 1861 and the coins were referred to as ( 銅錢, copper coins ) or simply as coins. Denominations of the vietnamese cash coins were based on their system of weights and metallic alloys and their value was determined by these aspects and their individual quality.In English these types of coins are referred to as “ cash coins ” .
  2. ^sous in French, which is also the French nickname name for the French 1 [6] These coins may alternatively be referred to asin French, which is besides the french dub name for the french 1 centime coin making it an equivalent to the english term “ Penny “ .
  3. ^ The color turns

    purple

    if you have visited the page in the past .

  4. ^ The reign deed was “ Thái Bình ” ( 太平 ) but the actual dedication of the neologism reads “ Đại Bình Hưng Bảo ” ( 大平興寶 ) .
  5. ^ “ uncertain attribution ” .
  6. ^ This cash coin is listed in Barker ‘s Cash coins of Viet Nam but his example is a individual issue of about 1580. No dynastic cash mint with this dedication is known to exist .
  7. ^ This is a privately produced cash coin which was falsely attributed to the Lý dynasty by Eduardo Toda y Güell, many of them are actually from the 1500s -1800s
  8. ^ This is a privately produced cash coin from the 1500s which has nothing to do with the Lý dynasty .
  9. ^ This cash mint was privately produced and is considered to be falsely attributed to Nguyễn Hi Nguyên ( 阮熙元 ) by some scholars .
  10. ^ These cash coins turned out to be a series of secret coins like to the official Hồ expressive style. however no such reign style existed under the reign of the Hồ dynasty .
  11. ^ These cash coins turned out to be privately produced emergence from the early 1600s, they are reign title copies of chinese cash coins but are listed in numismatic literature .
  12. ^Fujian. This cash coin turned out to be a Ming barter cash mint which was cast around the year 1590 at Quanzhou
  13. ^ during the Chinese ( Minh dynasty ) occupation these coins were issued as payments to chinese soldiers, Giao Chỉ Thông Bảo coins are ill made from lead and backbone .
  14. ^ Coins issued during the Lam Sơn uprising were cast as requital for the anti-Chinese rebels .
  15. ^ This cash coin was attributed to Lê Lợi ( 黎利 ) by Eduardo Toda y Güell, but late turned out to be individual topic from about 1600 .
  16. ^ This cash mint was attributed to Lê Lợi ( 黎利 ) by Eduardo Toda y Güell, but late turned out to be private offspring produced between the years 1750 and 1850 .
  17. ^ This cash coin was attributed to Lê Lợi ( 黎利 ) by Eduardo Toda y Güell, but late turned out to be individual issue produced after the year 1600 .
  18. ^ This cash coin turned out to be a rare private cash coin made during a abbreviated Trần restoration in the early 1500s. Unlike what Toda claimed it is not made from can and run, but a hard white bronze composing .
  19. ^ Despite bearing the reign championship “ Thái Hòa Thông Bảo ” all coins actually bear the inscription “ Đại Hòa Thông Bảo ” ( 大和通寶 ) .
  20. ^ From this period onwards the monarch of the Mạc dynasty were merely in manipulate of the Cao Bằng Province, which they had declared as an independent country for 75 years .
  21. ^[71] In Vietnam they were imported by the Nguyễn lords.[72] The “ Tường Phù Nguyên Bảo ” ( 祥符元寶 ), “ Trị Bình Thông Bảo ” ( 治平通寶 ), and “ Trị Bình Nguyên Bảo ” ( 治平元寶 ) were japanese trade coins minted in Nagasaki for trade with Vietnam and the Netherlands In Vietnam they were imported by the Nguyễn lords .
  22. ^Annam and its minor currency where the coin was described of being “of doubtful origin” but has been identified since. The character “ 宝 “ is an abbreviate version of “ 寶 “ normally found in Semi-cursive script. note from Eduardo Toda y Güell ‘swhere the mint was described of being “ of doubtful lineage ” but has been identified since .
  23. ^ The leaders of the Ninh Xá rebellion Nguyễn Tuyển and Nguyễn Cừ were brothers while Nguyễn Diên was their nephew .
  24. ^ Cast as payments for chinese soldiers stationed in Vietnam during the Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa
  25. ^[106] The production of these coins credibly lasted into 1941 or 1942 because the occupying japanese forces wanted the bull and were acquiring all of the cash coins they could find and stockpiling them in Haiphong for cargo to Japan for the output of war materials .
  26. ^ The coins from this part of the list and below are from Dr. R. Allan Barker ( 2004 ) while the coins above are from Edouard Toda ( 1882 ) .

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

  • ED. TODA. (1882) ANNAM and its minor currency. Hosted on Art-Hanoi. (Wikimedia Commons)
  • Dr. R. Allan Barker. (2004) The historical Cash Coins of Viet Nam. ISBN 981-05-2300-9
  • Howard A. Daniel, III – The Catalog and Guidebook of Southeast Asian Coins and Currency, Volume I, France (3rd Edition). Published: 10 April 2018. ISBN 1879951045.
  • Pham Quoc Quan, Nguyen Dinh Chien, Nguyen Quoc Binh and Xiong Bao Kang: Tien Kim Loai Viet Nam. Vietnamese Coins. Bao Tang Lich Su Viet Nam. National Museum of Vietnamese History. Ha noi, 2005. (in Vietnamese)
  • Hội khoa học lịch sử Thừa Thiên Huế, sách đã dẫn. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trương Hữu Quýnh, Đinh Xuân Lâm, Lê Mậu Hãn, sách đã dẫn. (in Vietnamese)
  • Lục Đức Thuận, Võ Quốc Ky (2009), Tiền cổ Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục. (in Vietnamese)
  • Đỗ Văn Ninh (1992), Tiền cổ Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Khoa học xã hội. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trương Hữu Quýnh, Đinh Xuân Lâm, Lê Mậu Hãn chủ biên (2008), Đại cương lịch sử Việt Nam, Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục. (in Vietnamese)
  • Viện Sử học (2007), Lịch sử Việt Nam, tập 4, Nhà xuất bản Khoa học xã hội. (in Vietnamese)
  • Trần Trọng Kim (2010), Việt Nam sử lược, Nhà xuất bản Thời đại. (in Vietnamese)
  • Catalogue des monnaies vietnamiennes (in French), François Thierry
  • Yves Coativy, “Les monnaies vietnamiennes d’or et d’argent anépigraphes et à légendes (1820–1883)”, Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique, février 2016, p. 57-62, (in French)
  • Tien Kim Loai Viet Nam (Vietnamese Coins), Pham Quoc Quan, Hanoi, 2005. (in Vietnamese)
  • W. Op den Velde, “Cash coin index. The Cash Coins of Vietnam”, Amsterdam, 1996.

Read more: Possum Magic Coins

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.