Orlando ( Pip ) W. Qualley ( 1897-1988 ) was a extremity of the Luther College course of 1918, and in 1931 he received a Ph.D. in Classics from the University of Michigan. From gradation until his retirement in 1969 he held a variety of positions at Luther, including vice president, dean, professor of authoritative languages, registrar, basketball coach and football bus. While participating in an archaeological shot in Karanis, Egypt between 1924 and 1925, Qualley obtained the 420 coins in his collection from Dr. David Askren. Askren was a aesculapian missionary living in Cairo and had a cutting interest for antiquities. The coins that Qualley procured were primitively offered to Prof. Kelsey, who was the drawing card of the archaeological dispatch in Karanis and to whom Dr. Askren had sold numerous antiquities before, many of which however reside in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan. After Kelsey declined to buy the coins, either because he had acquired so many in early excavations or he realized that the Karanis excavations would yield many more ( over 50,000 ), Dr. Askren offered them to Qualley, who then purchased them. Most of the coins from this collection range from the fourth hundred B.C. to the 4th cent. A.D. His collection was given to Luther in 1925 .
Reading: Ancient Numismatics Collection
Richard Simon Hanson, professor emeritus at Luther, donated his collection of ancient coins to the college. He obtained many of them while undertaking doctoral research on the Dead Sea Scrolls in the Upper Galilee. He spent nine summers doing archaeological work with the coins, including clean, photograph, and studying them. The coins with which he worked total around 6,000, but those were the property of Israel. israeli officials allowed Hanson to procure the coins that they did not want, and Hanson ended up with around 600 coins, many of which finally became part of Luther ‘s solicitation. Hanson has written several books regarding the coins, many of which manage with the coins unearthed at Khirbet Shema, an excursion on which he was the numismatist. In fact, much of what we know about the coins in the Qualley and Haatvedt Collections are the solution of Dr. Hanson ‘s efforts to catalog and describe them .
After graduating from Luther in 1930 and going on to obtain a alumnus degree, Rolfe Haatvedt returned to Decorah and was a professor of classics at the college for 37 years. Over the course of his career he built up a individual mint solicitation, which was donated to Luther College by his wife Helen after his exceed .
Our Collection’s Statistics
The follow graph and charts provide a quick overview of our collection :
Ancient Greek Coins
The ancient Greek world was split into closely a thousand self-governed city-states, or poleis. The larger ones minted their own denominations of money starting arsenic early on as ca. 700 B.C. As coins spread, the weights of the coins became more standardized. however, each city was responsible for their own mint, so standards of weight and worth were never wholly uniform as they were with the former Romans. Each city had unique symbols which could be used to identify the city of origin ; Athens, for case, was represented by an owl, an animal normally associated with their patron goddess Athena, while Rhodes was represented by a rose—a play on words since the Greek word for rose was rhodon .
greek coins are separated into three periods : the Archaic period ( ca. 700-480 B.C. ), the classical music period ( 480-323 B.C. ), and the hellenic time period ( 323-31 B.C. ) .
The Archaic menstruation is defined by the emerging city-states of ancient Greece, from the initiation of greek neologism in around 700 B.C. until the wars with Persia in 480 B.C. At this time, there were no greek empires. rather, city-states entered into easy alliances ( or ‘ leagues ’ ) with neighbors for common interest and protection .
The classical time period is defined as the period from 480 B.C. ( when Greece repelled the persian invaders ) until the end of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. During the classical period, some city-states became much exalted, with larger spheres of influence. Their coins normally featured a god or goddess on one side, normally the patron god from the city of origin, and a symbol of the city on the early. This was besides the menstruation when inscriptions began appearing on coins, often explicitly stating the city where it was minted .
The Hellenistic era, which stretches from 323 B.C. to the end of Cleopatra in 31 B.C., is normally referred to as the senesce of Alexander the Great and his successors. In this era, greek coinage dispersed all over the Mediterranean and Middle East american samoa far as cardinal Asia. greek coins became common over huge distances, reaching areas as far east as Sri Lanka and Indochina, and as far north and west as Great Britain. These coins set the standard for centuries to come. After Alexander ’ s death, many of his successors minted coins with their own likenesses and names on them. Because these successor kingdoms were much larger and wealthier than the greek city-states of the Classical period, their coins tended to be larger ( and frequently in gold ) and mass-produce in larger numbers. In places isolated from the Mediterranean, such as Afghanistan and India, these coins are some of the lone attest of sealed greek occupation and influence .
According to Roman tradition, the city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C. Starting out as an inconspicuous riverbank greenwich village under the govern of local kings, the Romans overthrew their monarchy in 509 B.C. and established the Roman Republic. Over the years the Republic spread its domain westward ( into modern France and Spain ), southbound ( into Tunisia and beyond ), and east into Asia Minor ( modern Turkey ). In 27 B.C., the Republic was transformed into an Empire, with Augustus reigning as the lone ruler of Rome and its provinces. He and his successors spread Roman predominate to Judea, Egypt, Britain, and for a brief time Armenia and Mesopotamia ( Iraq ). This Empire survived in one shape or another until the fall of the Byzantines in A.D. 1453 .
During most of this clock time, coins were minted for the government ’ mho use, much to pay debts or soldiers ’ salaries. accordingly the politics normally minted aureate and argent coins, as paying big amounts with tan would have required excessively many coins. frankincense, bronze coins were minted at guerrilla intervals, and their quality was much lacking. however, a lesser choice coin was required for casual purchases by the populace, and thus these coins are the most park establish. During the late empire, local authorities could mint tan coins, but flatware and amber coins were still minted only under the authority of the emperor.
Because everyone within the Roman Empire had need for money, coins were universal. however, for the minters they often served other purposes besides just monetary transactions. For exemplify, much Republic neologism featured images of the flop of Roma, a female deity who personified the city of Rome. This changed when Julius Caesar, after seizing control of the mint from the Senate, became the first to mint an persona of a living person—in this casing, himself—on a Roman mint. Following Caesar ’ south character assassination in 44 B.C., the exercise of putting one ’ second portrayal on a mint was not abandoned. subsequent emperors made it a tradition. These portraits were an significant means of spreading the emperor ’ second visualize throughout his domain, and they much tried to make the emperor seem divine. Often the coin would embody attributes of the individual portray on it. In addition to their own portraits, emperors would sometimes mint coins with images of past emperors as court to them. other times they would mint coins adorned with images of their designate successors in order to establish and solidify their rightful heir. The imperial coinage was, basically, a government-controlled economic instrument which besides had added respect as propaganda .
When the jewish Hasmoneans, normally known as the Maccabees, revolted and gained independence from the Seleucids in 140 B.C., they began to mint the first gear rightfully jewish coins. These coins continued to be produced under the Herodian dynasty, a creature politics for Rome, and late under the Romans themselves. During the Roman rule of the Levant, many coins were minted under the authority of territorial governors, including Pontius Pilate of New Testament notoriety. jewish coins were produced again for short periods during the jewish Revolts of 66-70 and 132-135 A.D. Although these coins are not as technically impressive as their greek or Roman counterparts, they are however authoritative to historians .
many of Luther ’ s coins from the Levant were donated by Richard Simon Hanson, professor emeritus of religion. Hanson obtained his coins while working as a numismatist between 1970 and 1972 for an archaeological expedition at Khirbet Shema in contemporary Israel. Many of the coins are crude, as the finer examples were taken by the archaeologists or put into museums in Israel, but there are besides a few replica to give a better sense as to what the coins may have looked like in their original discipline. The Levantine coins in the Luther collection are by and large of Jewish lineage, although a few Seleucid and Ptolemaic coins do appear .