Jefferson nickel – Wikipedia

US 5-cent mint minted since 1938

Jefferson nickel
United States
Value 5 cents (0.05 US dollars)
Mass 5.000 g
Diameter 21.21 mm
Edge Plain
  • 75% copper
  • 25% nickel

(mid-1942 to 1945)

  • 56% copper
  • 35% silver
  • 9% manganese
Years of minting 1938 – present
Mint marks D, S, P, W (2020 only). Located from 1938 to 1964 to the right of Monticello, except for “wartime nickels” which have a large mint mark above Monticello. No mint marks used from 1965 to 1967. From 1968 to 2004, slightly clockwise from the last digit of the date. In 2005, under “Liberty”. Since 2006, under the date. Philadelphia Mint specimens before 1980 lack mint mark, except for wartime nickels, which have a P for Philadelphia if struck there.
Design Thomas Jefferson
Designer Jamie Franki
Design date 2006–present
Design date 1938–2004 (left) and 2005 (right). Struck without “FS” initials prior to 1966.
US Nickel 2013 Rev.png
Design Monticello
Designer Felix Schlag
Design date 1938–2003 and 2006–present. Struck without “FS” initials prior to 2006.
Design date upper two designs struck in 2004; lower two in 2005

The Jefferson nickel has been the five-cent mint struck by the United States Mint since 1938, when it replaced the Buffalo nickel. From 1938 until 2004, the copper-nickel coin ‘s obverse featured a profile word picture of founding don and third U.S. President Thomas Jefferson by artist Felix Schlag ; the obverse blueprint used in 2005 was besides in profile, though by Joe Fitzgerald. Since 2006 Jefferson ‘s depiction, newly designed by Jamie Franki, faces forward. The coin ‘s reverse is hush the Schlag original, although in 2004 and 2005 the piece bear commemorative designs. First struck in 1913, the Buffalo nickel had retentive been unmanageable to coin, and after it completed the 25-year term during which it could be replaced only by Congress, the Mint moved quickly to replace it with a fresh purpose. The Mint conducted a design contest, in early 1938, requiring that Jefferson be depicted on the obverse and Jefferson ‘s house Monticello on the overrule. Schlag won the competition, but was required to submit an wholly new turn back and make other changes before the newly piece went into production in October 1938.

As nickel was a strategic war material during World War II, nickels coined from 1942 to 1945 were struck in a copper-silver-manganese alloy which would not require adjustment to vending machines. They bear a large mint distinguish above the depicting of Monticello on the overrule. In 2004 and 2005, the nickel saw newly designs as part of the Westward Journey nickel series, and since 2006 has borne Schlag ‘s inverse and Franki ‘s obverse .

origin [edit ]

The design for the Buffalo nickel is well regard today, and has appeared both on a commemorative silver dollar and a bullion mint. however, during the prison term it was struck ( 1913–1938 ), it was less well liked, specially by Mint authorities, whose attempts to bring out the full purpose increased an already high rate of die breakage. By 1938, it had been struck for 25 years, thus becoming eligible to be replaced by action of the Secretary of the Treasury rather than by Congress. The Mint, which is function of the Department of the Treasury, moved promptly and without public protest to replace the mint. In deep January 1938, the Mint announced an open competition for the raw nickel purpose, with the achiever to receive a loot of $ 1,000. The deadline for submissions was April 15 ; Mint Director Nellie Tayloe Ross and three sculptors were to be the judges. Competitors were to place a portrait of Jefferson on the obverse, and a delineation of his house, Monticello, on the inverse. By mid-march, few entries had been received. This seeming lack of response proved to be deceptive, as many artists had planned to enter the contest and submitted designs near the deadline. On April 20, the judges viewed 390 entries ; four days former, Felix Schlag was announced as the winner. Schlag had been born in Germany and had come to the United States lone nine years previously. Either through a mistake or an oversight, Schlag did not include his initials in the design ; they would not be added until 1966. [ 5 ] The break of Jefferson on the obverse closely resembles his tear by sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon, which is to be found in Boston ‘s Museum of Fine Arts. In early May, it was reported that the Mint required some changes to Schlag ‘s design anterior to coining. Schlag ‘s original design showed a three-quarters view of Monticello, including a tree. Officials disliked the letter Schlag had used, a more mod manner than that used on the eventual mint. The tree was another source of official displeasure ; officials decided it was a palm corner and falsely believed Jefferson could not have been growing such a thing. A ball request for changes was sent to Schlag in recently May. The sculptor was busy with other projects and did not work on the nickel until mid-june. When he did, he changed the reverse to a plain opinion, or head-on perspective, of Monticello. Art historian Cornelius Vermeule described the transfer :

official taste eliminated this interesting, tied exciting, view, and substituted the mausoleum of Roman profile and blurred forms that masquerades as the building on the finished mint. On the trial reverse the name “ Monticello ” seemed hardly necessary and was therefore, logically, omitted. On the coin as issued it seems substantive lest one think the build depicted is the vault at Fort Knox, a express archives build, or a public library somewhere .

The designs were submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts for their recommendation in mid-july ; the translation submitted included the new adaptation of Monticello but may not have included the revised letter. The Commission approved the designs. however, Commission chair Charles Moore asked that the positions of the motto on the invert be switched, with the country mention at the top ; this was not done. After the Fine Arts Commission recommendation, the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, approved the blueprint. On August 21, the Anderson ( Indiana ) Herald noted :

[ T ] he Federal Fine Arts Commission … did n’t like the view of Thomas Jefferson ‘s home, Monticello, so they required the artist to do another picture of the presence of the house. [ 9 ] They did not like the letter on the mint. It was n’t in keeping, but they forgot to say what it was n’t in keeping with … There is no more reason for imitating the Romans in this respect [ by using Roman-style letter on the mint ] than there would be for modeling our automobiles after the chariot of Ben Hur ‘s day .

production [edit ]

1938–1945 : early mint ; World War II changes [edit ]

production of the Jefferson nickel began at all three mints ( Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco ), on October 3, 1938. By mid-november, some twelve million had been coined, and they were officially released into circulation on November 15 ; more than thirty million would be struck in 1938. According to contemporary accounts, the Jefferson nickel was initially hoarded, and it was not until 1940 that it was normally seen in circulation. In 1939, the Mint recut the hub for the nickel, sharpening the steps on Monticello, which had been fuzzy in initial strikings. Since then, a test for whether a nickel is particularly well struck has been whether all six steps appear clearly, with “ full moon tone ” nickels more collectible. For peculiarity collectors this 1939 die change besides created two varieties for all three mints and proof strikings that year, the “ Reverse of 1938 ” and the “ Reverse of 1940 ”, the latter being more common for Philadelphia, scarce for the other two mints. [ 13 ] A 1940 proof with the 1938 reverse has besides been discovered. [ 14 ]
With the entry of the United States into World War II, nickel became a critical war substantial, and the Mint sought to reduce its use of the metallic. On March 27, 1942, Congress authorized a nickel made of 50 % copper and 50 % argent, but gave the Mint the assurance to vary the proportions, or add other metals, in the public concern. The Mint ‘s greatest concern was in finding an alloy which would use no nickel, but inactive satisfy forge detectors in vending machines. An alloy of 56 % copper, 35 % flatware and 9 % manganese proved desirable, and this debase began to be coined into nickels from October 1942. In the hopes of making them easily to sort out and withdraw after the war, the Mint struck all “ war nickels ” with a large mint check appearing above Monticello. The mint chump P for Philadelphia was the first gear time that mint ‘s mark had appeared on a US coin. The prewar constitution and smaller mint commemorate ( or no mint scar for Philadelphia ) were resumed in 1946. In a 2000 article in The Numismatist, Mark A. Benvenuto suggested that the sum of nickel saved by the switch was not significant to the war feat, but that the war nickel served as a omnipresent admonisher of the sacrifices that needed to be made for victory. Within the war nickel series collectors recognize two additions, one official, the early counterfeit. Some 1943-P nickels are overdated. here a die for the previous year was reused, allowing a “ 2 ” to be visible under the “ 3 ”. [ 16 ] In addition, a number of 1944 nickels are known without the large “ P ” mintmark. These were produced in 1954 by Francis LeRoy Henning, who besides made forge nickels with at least four other dates. [ 17 ]

1946–2003 : late production of original designs [edit ]

When it became known that the Denver Mint had struck merely 2,630,030 nickels in 1950, the coins ( catalogued as 1950-D ) began to be wide hoarded. speculation in them increased in the early on 1960s, but prices decreased aggressively in 1964. Because they were sol widely pulled from circulation, the 1950-D is readily available nowadays. A number of turn back dies with an S mint mark, intended for the San Francisco Mint, were created in 1955 ; they were not used as that mint struck no nickels that year and subsequently closed, and the unused dies were sent for use at Denver, where the S mint mark was overpunched with a D. 1949 and 1954 are early years where one mintmark was punched over another. Proof coins, struck at Philadelphia, had been minted for sale to collectors in 1938 and continued through 1942. In the latter year proof were struck in both the regular and “ war nickel ” compositions, after which they were discontinued. Sales of proof coins began again in 1950 and continued until 1964, when their strike was discontinued during the mint dearth. In 1966 a humble transfer was made to the design to add the initials of the designer ( FS ) to the obverse, underneath Jefferson ‘s portrayal. In memorial of that change, two proof 1966 nickels with the initials were struck and presented to him. particular mint sets, of lower quality than proof coins, were struck from 1965 to 1967. Proof coin sales resumed in 1968, with coins struck at the reopen San Francisco facility. Coins struck at any mint between 1965 and 1967 miss mint marks. Beginning in 1968, mint marks were again used, but were moved to the lower part of the obverse, to the right of Jefferson ‘s break. No nickels were produced in Philadelphia in 1968, 1969 or 1970, and sol there are no nickels from these years bearing the P batch notice. From 1971, no nickels were struck for circulation in San Francisco—the 1971-S was the first nickel strike in proof only since 1878. In both 1994 and 1997 matte proof nickels, with distinctive farinaceous surfaces, were struck in small numbers at the Philadelphia mint for inclusion in commemorative mint sets. [ 22 ]

During the recently twentieth century the Mint repeatedly modified the plan. In 1982, the steps were sharpened in that class ‘s redesign. The 1987 change saw the sharpen of Jefferson ‘s hair and the details of Monticello—since 1987, well-struck nickels with six full steps on the change by reversal have been relatively common. In 1993, Jefferson ‘s hair was again sharpened .
Obverse struck in 2004, the last year Schlag ‘s obverse design was used

2003–present : Westward Journey nickel series ; redesign of obverse [edit ]

This turn back of the indian Peace Medal struck for Jefferson served as the footing of one of the Western Journey designs In June 2002, Mint officials were matter to in redesigning the nickel in honor of the approaching bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They contacted the function of Representative Eric Cantor ( Republican – Virginia ). Cantor had concerns about moving Monticello, located in his dwelling state, off the nickel, and sponsored legislation which would allow the Mint to strike different designs in 2003, 2004, and 2005, and again describe Monticello begin in 2006. [ 24 ] The resultant act, the “ American 5-Cent Coin Design Continuity Act of 2003 ”, was signed into law on April 23, 2003. Under its terms, the Treasury Secretary could vary the nickel ‘s designs in award of the two-hundredth anniversary of the Expedition and of the Louisiana Purchase, but the nickel would again feature Jefferson and Monticello beginning in 2006. [ 25 ] Under Cantor ‘s legislation, every future five-cent coin will feature Jefferson and Monticello. [ 26 ] In November 2003, the Mint announced the beginning two rearward designs, to be struck with Schlag ‘s obverse in 2004. [ 27 ] The first, designed by United States Mint sculptor-engraver Norman E. Nemeth, depicts an adaptation of the indian Peace Medals struck for Jefferson. The irregular, by Mint sculptor-engraver Alfred Maletsky, depicts a keelboat like that used by the Expedition. [ 28 ]
Monticello returned to the reverse of the Jefferson nickel in 2006 The 2005 nickels presented a new visualize of the early President, designed by Joe Fitzgerald based on Houdon ‘s bust of Jefferson. [ 29 ] The word “ Liberty ” was taken from Jefferson ‘s handwritten draft for the Declaration of Independence, though to achieve a capital L, Fitzgerald had to obtain one from other documents written by Jefferson. [ 30 ] The reverse for the first half of the year depicted an american english bison, recalling the Buffalo nickel and designed by Jamie Franki. The overrule for the second half showed a coastline and the words “ Ocean in position ! O ! The Joy ! “, from a daybook introduction by William Clark, co-leader of the Expedition. [ 29 ] Clark had actually written the word as “ ocian ”, but the Mint modernized the spell. [ 30 ] The obverse plan for the nickel debut in 2006 was designed by Franki. It depicts a forward-facing Jefferson based on an 1800 survey by Rembrandt Peale, and includes “ Liberty ” in Jefferson ‘s script. According to Acting Mint Director David Lebryk, “ The double of a forward-facing Jefferson is a appointment protection to [ his ] vision. ” [ 31 ] The reverse beginning in 2006 was again Schlag ‘s Monticello design, but newly sharpened by Mint engravers. [ 32 ] As Schlag ‘s obverse design, on which his initials were placed in 1966, is no longer used, his initials were placed on the reverse to the proper of Monticello. [ 33 ] In 2009, a total of alone 86,640,000 nickels were struck for circulation. [ 34 ] The digit increased in 2010 to 490,560,000. [ 35 ] The unusually low 2009 figures were caused by a lack of demand for coins in department of commerce due to poor economic conditions. [ 36 ] In 2020, the mint was struck for the first time at the West Point Mint with mint mark W ; these pieces were not released into circulation but were used as premiums in the Mint ‘s annual sets. A proof 2020-W nickel was placed in the clothed validation set and a reverse proofread 2020-W nickel in the eloquent proof set. [ 37 ] Plans to include an uncirculated 2020-W nickel in the annual uncirculated coin set were abandoned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [ 38 ] The Circulating Collectible Coin Redesign Act of 2020 ( Pub.L. 116–330 ( text ) ( PDF ) ) was signed by President Donald Trump on January 13, 2021. It provides for, among other things, special annual designs for the circle coinage in 2026, including the nickel, for the United States Semiquincentennial ( 250th anniversary ), with one of the designs to depict women. [ 39 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

reservoir :
Category : Coin collecting

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