History of the Netherlands – Wikipedia

The history of the Netherlands is a history of seafaring people thriving in the lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarize border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman office collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the union and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south. During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a big character of Western Europe. The region present corresponding to the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unify equivalent of the mod Netherlands. By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia ; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France.

The Catholic kings of Spain took firm measures against Protestantism, which polarised the peoples of contemporary Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch disgust led to the rending in 1581 of the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic, French- and Dutch-speaking “ spanish Netherlands “ ( approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg ), and a northern “ United Provinces ” ( or “ Dutch Republic ) “, which spoke Dutch and was predominantly Protestant. The latter entity became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a unfolding of barter, diligence, and the sciences. A rich global Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on invasion, colonialism and extraction of outside resources. During the eighteenth hundred, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more mighty british and french neighbours weakened it. The english seized the north american english colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it “ New York ”. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The french Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland ( 1806–1810 ), and late simply a french imperial state. After the frustration of Napoleon in 1813–1815, an expanded “ United Kingdom of the Netherlands “ was created with the House of Orange as sovereign, besides ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became freelancer in 1839. After an initially conservative period, following the presentation of the 1848 constitution, the area became a parliamentary majority rule with a constitutional sovereign. contemporary Luxembourg became formally autonomous from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another ramify of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was impersonal during the First World War, but during the second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed about all of the country ‘s jewish population. When the dutch electric resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944–1945. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but anterior to this the dutch destroyed the petroleum wells for which Japan was despairing. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975. The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery ( helped by the American Marshall Plan ), followed by the introduction of a benefit state of matter during an earned run average of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic confederation with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In holocene decades, the dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany and is highly golden. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU extremity states .

Prehistory ( before 800 BC ) [edit ]

diachronic changes to the landscape [edit ]

The prehistory of the sphere that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by its constantly shifting, low-lying geography .

The Netherlands in 5500 BC The Netherlands in 3850 BC The Netherlands in 2750 BC
The Netherlands in 500 BC The Netherlands in AD 50

 

beach ridges and dunes
 tidal sand flats, tidal salt marshes tidal sand flats, tidal mudflats  peat marshes and
(including old river courses and riverbank breaches which have filled up with peat marshes and floodplain silt areas ( including old river courses and riverbank breaches which have filled up with silt or peat

 

Valleys of the major rivers ( not covered with peat )
 River dunes ( River dunes ( Pleistocene dunes )

 

open water ( ocean, lagoons, rivers )
 Pleistocene landscape (> −6 m compared to Pleistocene landscape ( > −6 m compared to NAP

 

Pleistocene landscape ( −6 to 0 m ; –20 to 0 foot )

 

Pleistocene landscape ( 0–10 thousand ; 0–33 foot )

 

Pleistocene landscape ( 10–20 megabyte ; 33–66 foot )

 

Pleistocene landscape ( 20–50 thousand ; 66–164 foot )

 

Pleistocene landscape ( 50–100 megabyte ; 164–328 foot )

 

Pleistocene landscape ( 100–200 thousand ; 328–656 foot )

Earliest groups of hunter-gatherers ( before 5000 BC ) [edit ]

An oak figurine found in Willemstad, the Netherlands, dating from around 4500 BC. On display in the Rijksmuseum vanguard Oudheden in Leiden. Height : 12.5 curium ( 4.9 in ). The area that is now the Netherlands was inhabited by early humans at least 37,000 years ago, as attested by flinty tools discovered in Woerden in 2010. [ 1 ] In 2009 a break up of a 40,000-year-old Neanderthal skull was found in backbone dredged from the North Sea floor off the coast of Zeeland. [ 2 ] During the last ice rink age, the Netherlands had a tundra climate with barely vegetation and the inhabitants survived as hunter-gatherers. After the end of the ice senesce, respective Paleolithic groups inhabited the area. It is known that around 8000 BC a Mesolithic tribe resided near Burgumer Mar ( Friesland ). Another group residing elsewhere is known to have made canoes. The oldest recovered canoe in the world is the Pesse canoe. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] According to C14 dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8200 BC and 7600 BC. [ 4 ] This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen. autochthonous hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture are attested from around 5600 BC onwards. [ 5 ] They are strongly linked to rivers and candid water and were related to the southerly Scandinavian Ertebølle culture ( 5300–4000 BC ). To the west, the same tribe might have built hunting camps to hunt winter game, including seals .

The arrival of farm ( around 5000–4000 BC ) [edit ]

farming arrived in the Netherlands somewhere around 5000 BC with the linear Pottery culture, who were credibly central european farmers. department of agriculture was practiced only on the loess tableland in the very south ( southerly Limburg ), but even there it was not established permanently. Farms did not develop in the respite of the Netherlands. There is besides some evidence of minor settlements in the rest of the country. These people made the switch over to animal farming erstwhile between 4800 BC and 4500 BC. Dutch archeologist Leendert Louwe Kooijmans wrote, “ It is becoming increasingly clean that the agrarian transformation of prehistoric communities was a strictly autochthonal process that took place very gradually. ” [ 5 ] This transformation took place adenine early on as 4300 BC–4000 BC [ 6 ] and featured the introduction of grains in small quantities into a traditional broad-spectrum economy. [ 7 ]

Funnelbeaker and other cultures ( around 4000–3000 BC ) [edit ]

Hunebed D27, the largest dolmen in the Netherlands, located near Borger in Drenthe. The Funnelbeaker culture was a grow polish extending from Denmark through northerly Germany into the northern Netherlands. In this period of Dutch prehistory, the first gear celebrated remains were erected : the dolmens, big stone grave monuments. They are found in Drenthe, and were credibly built between 4100 BC and 3200 BC. To the west, the Vlaardingen polish ( around 2600 BC ), an obviously more primitive culture of hunter-gatherers survived well into the Neolithic time period .

Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures ( around 3000–2000 BC ) [edit ]

Around 2950 BCE there was a transition from the Funnelbeaker grow culture to the Corded Ware pastoralist culture, a large archaeological horizon appearing in westerly and central Europe, that is associated with the gain of indo-european languages. This transition was probably caused by developments [ clarification needed ] in easterly Germany, and it occurred within two generations. [ 8 ] The Bell Beaker culture was besides present in the Netherlands. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures were not autochthonal to the Netherlands but were pan-European in nature, extending across much of northern and central Europe. The beginning evidence of the use of the wheel dates from this period, about 2400 BC. This culture besides experimented with working with bull. evidence of this, including stone anvils, bull knives, and a copper spearhead, was found on the Veluwe. Copper finds show that there was trade with other areas in Europe, as natural copper is not found in dutch dirty .

Bronze Age ( around 2000–800 BC ) [edit ]

A tan ceremony object ( not a sword, but called the “ Sword of Jutphaas ” ), dating from 1800 to 1500 BC and found south of Utrecht The Bronze Age probably started somewhere around 2000 BC and lasted until around 800 BC. The earliest bronze tools have been found in the grave of a Bronze Age individual called “ the smith of Wageningen “. More bronze Age objects from later periods have been found in Epe, Drouwen and elsewhere. Broken bronze objects found in Voorschoten were apparently destined for recycling. This indicates how valuable bronze was considered in the Bronze Age. Typical bronze objects from this time period included knives, swords, axes, fibula and bracelets .
Most of the Bronze Age objects found in the Netherlands have been found in Drenthe. One detail shows that trading networks during this period extended a army for the liberation of rwanda distance. big bronze situlae ( buckets ) found in Drenthe were manufactured somewhere in eastern France or in Switzerland. They were used for mixing wine with water ( a Roman/Greek custom ). The many finds in Drenthe of rare and valuable objects, such as tin-bead necklaces, suggest that Drenthe was a deal concentrate in the Netherlands in the Bronze Age. The Bell Beaker cultures ( 2700–2100 ) locally developed into the Bronze Age Barbed-Wire Beaker culture ( 2100–1800 ). In the second millennium BC, the area was the boundary between the Atlantic and Nordic horizons and was split into a northerly and a southern region, roughly divided by the course of the Rhine. In the north, the Elp culture ( c. 1800 to 800 BC ) [ 11 ] was a Bronze Age archaeological acculturation having earthenware pottery of low quality known as “ Kümmerkeramik “ ( or “ Grobkeramik “ ) as a marker. The initial phase was characterized by tumuli ( 1800–1200 BC ) that were powerfully tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the burial mound polish ( 1600–1200 BC ) in central Europe. This phase was followed by a subsequent deepen featuring Urnfield ( cremation ) burial customs ( 1200–800 BC ). The southerly region became dominated by the Hilversum culture ( 1800–800 ), which apparently inherited the cultural ties with Britain of the former Barbed-Wire Beaker culture .

The pre-Roman period ( 800 BC – 58 BC ) [edit ]

Iron Age [edit ]

The Iron Age brought a measure of prosperity to the people living in the area of the contemporary Netherlands. Iron ore was available throughout the country, including bog down iron extracted from the ore in peat bogs ( moeras ijzererts ) in the north, the natural iron-bearing balls found in the Veluwe and the red iron ore near the rivers in Brabant. Smiths travelled from modest settlement to settlement with bronze and iron, fabricating tools on necessitate, including axes, knives, pins, arrowheads and swords. Some tell tied suggests the name of Damascus steel swords using an advanced method of forging that combined the flexibility of iron with the potency of steel. In Oss, a grave dating from around 500 BC was found in a burial knoll 52 metres wide ( and therefore the largest of its kind in westerly Europe ). Dubbed the “ king ‘s grave ” ( Vorstengraf (Oss) ), it contained extraordinary objects, including an iron sword with an inlay of gold and coral. In the centuries good before the arrival of the Romans, northerly areas once occupied by the Elp culture emerged as the probably Germanic Harpstedt culture [ 12 ] while the southerly parts were influenced by the Hallstatt acculturation and assimilated into the Celtic La Tène culture. The contemporary southern and western migration of Germanic groups and the northern expansion of the Hallstatt acculturation drew these peoples into each other ‘s sector of influence. [ 13 ] This is coherent with Caesar ‘s account of the Rhine forming the limit between Celtic and Germanic tribes .

arrival of Germanic groups [edit ]

distribution of the basal Germanic groups c. 1 AD. The Germanic tribes in the first place inhabited southern Scandinavia, Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, [ 14 ] but subsequent Iron Age cultures of the same region, like Wessenstedt ( 800–600 BC ) and Jastorf, may besides have belonged to this group. [ 15 ] The climate devolve in Scandinavia around 850 BC to 760 BC and late and faster approximately 650 BC might have triggered migrations. archaeological testify suggests around 750 BC a relatively uniform Germanic people from the Netherlands to the Vistula and southern Scandinavia. [ 14 ] In the west, the newcomers settled the coastal floodplains for the first clock time, since in adjacent higher grounds the population had increased and the land had become exhausted. [ 16 ] By the prison term this migration was complete, around 250 BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groupings had emerged. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] One grouping – labelled the “ North Sea Germanic “ – inhabited the northerly part of the Netherlands ( north of the big rivers ) and extending along the North Sea and into Jutland. This group is besides sometimes referred to as the “ Ingvaeones “. Included in this group are the peoples who would late develop into, among others, the early on Frisians and the early Saxons. [ 18 ] A second group, which scholars subsequently dubbed the “ Weser-Rhine Germanic “ ( or “ Rhine-Weser Germanic ” ), extended along the middle Rhine and Weser and inhabited the southern part of the Netherlands ( south of the capital rivers ). This group, besides sometimes referred to as the “ Istvaeones “, consisted of tribes that would finally develop into the salian frank Franks. [ 18 ]

Celts in the south [edit ]


 core core Hallstatt district, by the sixth century BC

 

maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC  Lusitanian area of Iberia where Celtic presence is uncertain

 

areas where Celtic languages remain wide spoken nowadays Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples, showing expansion into the southerly Netherlands : The celtic culture had its origins in the cardinal european Hallstatt culture ( c. 800–450 BC ), named for the rich sculpt finds in Hallstatt, Austria. [ 19 ] By the later La Tène period ( c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest ), this celtic culture had, whether by diffusion or migration, expanded over a wide range, including into the southerly area of the Netherlands. This would have been the northerly reach of the Gauls. In March 2005 17 celtic coins were found in Echt ( Limburg ). The eloquent coins, mix with copper and gold, go steady from around 50 BC to 20 AD. In October 2008 a hoard of 39 gold coins and 70 silver Celtic coins was found in the Amby sphere of Maastricht. [ 20 ] The gold coins were attributed to the Eburones people. [ 21 ] Celtic objects have besides been found in the area of Zutphen. [ 22 ] Although it is rare for hoards to be found, in past decades loose celtic coins and other objects have been found throughout the central, eastern and southerly part of the Netherlands. According to archaeologists these finds confirmed that at least the Meuse ( dutch : Maas ) river valley in the Netherlands was within the influence of the La Tène culture. dutch archaeologists even speculate that Zutphen ( which lies in the center of the nation ) was a celtic area before the Romans arrived, not a germanic one at all. [ 22 ] Scholars debate the actual extent of the celtic influence. [ 16 ] [ 23 ] The celtic influence and contacts between Gaulish and early teutonic polish along the Rhine is assumed to be the source of a phone number of celtic loanwords in Proto-Germanic. [ citation needed ] But according to belgian linguist Luc avant-garde Durme, toponymic tell of a former Celtic presence in the first gear Countries is near to absolutely absent. [ 24 ] Although there were Celts in the Netherlands, Iron Age innovations did not involve hearty Celtic intrusions and featured a local development from Bronze Age acculturation. [ 16 ]

The Nordwestblock hypothesis [edit ]

Some scholars ( De Laet, Gysseling, Hachmann, Kossack & Kuhn ) have speculated that a divide heathen identity, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period. They see the Netherlands as having been share of an Iron Age “ Nordwestblock “ stretching from the Somme to the Weser. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Their view is that this culture, which had its own language, was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east adenine late as the immediate pre-Roman period .

Roman era ( 57 BC – 410 AD ) [edit ]

native tribes [edit ]

During the Gallic Wars, the Belgic area south of the Oude Rijn and west of the Rhine was conquered by Roman forces under Julius Caesar in a series of campaigns from 57 BC to 53 BC. [ 26 ] The tribes located in the area of the Netherlands at this clock time did not leave behind written records, so all the information known about them during this pre-Roman period is based on what the Romans and Greeks wrote about them. One of the most authoritative is Caesar ‘s own Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Two main tribes he described as live in what is now the Netherlands were the Menapii, and the Eburones, both in the south, which is where Caesar was active. He established the principle that the Rhine defined a natural limit between Gaul and Germania magna. But the Rhine was not a firm border, and he made it clear up that there was a separate of Belgic Gaul where many of the local anesthetic tribes ( including the Eburones ) were “ Germani cisrhenani “, or in other cases, of mix origin. The Menapii stretched from the south of Zeeland, through North Brabant ( and possibly South Holland ), into the southeasterly of Gelderland. In late Roman times their district seems to have been divided or reduced, so that it became chiefly contained in what is now western Belgium. The Eburones, the largest of the Germani Cisrhenani group, covered a boastfully sphere including at least part of modern Dutch Limburg, stretching east to the Rhine in Germany, and besides northwest to the delta, giving them a boundary line with the Menapii. Their district may have stretched into Gelderland. In the delta itself, Caesar makes a passing comment about the Insula Batavorum ( “ Island of the Batavi ” ) in the Rhine river, without discussing who lived there. Later, in imperial times, a tribe called the Batavi became very important in this region. [ 27 ] a lot later Tacitus wrote that they had originally been a tribe of the Chatti, a kin in Germany never mentioned by Caesar. [ 28 ] however, archaeologists find evidence of continuity, and suggest that the Chattic group may have been a minor group, moving into a preexistent ( and possibly non-Germanic ) people, who could even have been depart of a known group such as the Eburones. [ 29 ]
The approximately 450 years of Roman principle that followed would profoundly change the area that would become the Netherlands. very frequently this involved large-scale dispute with the free Germanic tribe over the Rhine. other tribes who finally inhabited the islands in the delta during Roman times are mentioned by Pliny the Elder are the Cananefates in South Holland ; the Frisii, covering most of the mod Netherlands north of the Oude Rijn ; the Frisiabones, who obviously stretched from the delta into the North of North Brabant ; the Marsacii, who stretched from the Flemish coast, into the delta ; and the Sturii. [ 30 ] Caesar reported that he eliminated the name of the Eburones but in their position the Texuandri inhabited most of North Brabant, and the modern province of Limburg, with the Maas running through it, appears to have been inhabited in imperial times by ( from north to confederacy ) the Baetasii, the Catualini, the Sunuci and the Tungri. ( Tacitus reported that the Tungri was a new mention for the earlier Germani cisrhenani. ) north of the Old Rhine, apart from the Frisii, Pliny reports some Chauci reached into the delta, and two other tribes known from the eastern Netherlands were the Tuihanti ( or Tubantes ) from Twenthe in Overijssel, and the Chamavi, from Hamaland in northerly Gelderland, who became one of the first kin to be named as Frankish ( see below ). The Salians, besides Franks, probably originated in Salland in Overijssel, before they moved into the empire, forced by Saxons in the fourth century, first into Batavia, and then into Toxandria .

roman settlements in the Netherlands [edit ]

roman settlements Mask of a Roman horseman, discovered near Leiden Rhine Frontier of the Roman Empire around 70 AD. Starting about 15 BC, the Rhine, in the Netherlands came to be defended by the Lower Limes Germanicus. After a series of military actions, the Rhine became fixed around 12 AD as Rome ‘s northern frontier on the european mainland. A phone number of towns and developments would arise along this production line. The area to the confederacy would be integrated into the Roman Empire. At first part of Gallia Belgica, this area became character of the state of Germania Inferior. The tribe already within, or relocated to, this area became partially of the Roman Empire. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii and the Chauci, remained external Roman govern but not its presence and control. Romans built military forts along the Limes Germanicus and a phone number of towns and smaller settlements in the Netherlands. The more noteworthy roman towns were at Nijmegen ( Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum ) and at Voorburg ( Forum Hadriani ). possibly the most evocative Roman ruin is the mysterious Brittenburg, which emerged from the sandpaper at the beach in Katwijk several centuries ago, only to be buried again. These ruins were separate of Lugdunum Batavorum. early Roman settlements, fortifications, temples and other structures have been found at Alphen aan de Rijn ( Albaniana ) ; Bodegraven ; Cuijk ; Elst, Overbetuwe ; Ermelo ; Esch ; Heerlen ; Houten ; Kessel, North Brabant ; Oss, i.e. De Lithse Ham near Maren-Kessel ; Kesteren in Neder-Betuwe ; Leiden ( Matilo ) ; Maastricht ; Meinerswijk ( immediately part of Arnhem ) ; Tiel ; Utrecht ( Traiectum ) ; Valkenburg ( South Holland ) ( Praetorium Agrippinae ) ; Vechten ( Fectio ) now share of Bunnik ; Velsen ; Vleuten ; Wijk bij Duurstede ( Levefanum ) ; Woerden ( Laurium or Laurum ) ; and Zwammerdam ( Nigrum Pullum ) .

Batavian disgust [edit ]

Throughout Dutch history, but specially during the Eighty Years ‘ War, the Batavians have been romantically portrayed as the epic ancestors of the dutch people. “ The Batavians Defeating the Romans on the Rhine ”, c. 1613, by Otto van Veen The Batavians, Cananefates, and the other frame tribes were held in high respect as soldiers throughout the conglomerate, and traditionally served in the Roman cavalry. [ 31 ] The frontier acculturation was influenced by the Romans, Germanic people, and Gauls. In the first centuries after Rome ‘s seduction of Gaul, trade flourished. And Roman, Gaulish and Germanic material culture are found combined in the region. however, the Batavians rose against the Romans in the Batavian rebellion of 69 AD. The drawing card of this rebellion was Batavian Gaius Julius Civilis. One of the causes of the rebellion was that the Romans had taken young Batavians as slaves. A numeral of Roman castella were attacked and burnt. other roman soldiers in Xanten and elsewhere and aide troops of Batavians and Canninefatae in the legions of Vitellius ) joined the rebellion, therefore splitting the northerly partially of the Roman united states army. In April 70 AD, a few legions sent by Vespasianus and commanded by Quintus Petillius Cerialis finally defeated the Batavians and negotiated giving up with Gaius Julius Civilis somewhere between the Waal and the Meuse ( dutch : Maas ) near Noviomagus ( Nijmegen ), which was probably called “ Batavodurum ” by the Batavians. [ 32 ] The Batavians late merged with other tribes and became part of the salian frank Franks. dutch writers in the 17th and 18th centuries saw the rebellion of the independent and freedom-loving Batavians as mirroring the dutch rebellion against Spain and early forms of absolutism. According to this nationalist position, the Batavians were the “ true ” forefathers of the Dutch, which explains the recurring use of the name over the centuries. Jakarta was named “ Batavia ” by the dutch in 1619. The Dutch democracy created in 1795 on the footing of French rotatory principles was called the Batavian Republic. even today Batavian is a condition sometimes used to describe the dutch people ; this is like to use of Gallic to describe the french and Teutonic to describe the Germans. [ 33 ]

emergence of the Franks [edit ]

modern scholars of the Migration Period are in agreement that the Frankish identity emerged at the first half of the third hundred out of assorted earlier, smaller Germanic groups, including the Salii, Sicambri, Chamavi, Bructeri, Chatti, Chattuarii, Ampsivarii, Tencteri, Ubii, Batavi and the Tungri, who inhabited the lower and center Rhine valley between the Zuyder Zee and the river Lahn and extended eastwards equally far as the Weser, but were the most densely settled around the IJssel and between the Lippe and the Sieg. The frankish confederation credibly began to coalesce in the 210s. [ 34 ] The Franks finally were divided into two groups : the Ripuarian Franks ( Latin : Ripuari ), who were the Franks that lived along the middle-Rhine River during the Roman Era, and the salian frank Franks, who were the Franks that originated in the area of the Netherlands. Franks appear in Roman text as both allies and enemies ( laeti and dediticii ). By about 320, the Franks had the region of the Scheldt river ( confront day west Flanders and southwest Netherlands ) under master, and were raiding the Channel, disrupting transportation to Britain. Roman forces pacified the area, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared as pirates along the shores at least until the time of julian the Apostate ( 358 ), when salian frank Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria, according to Ammianus Marcellinus. [ 34 ]

disappearance of the Frisii ? [edit ]

Three factors contributed to the probable disappearance of the Frisii from the northern Netherlands. First, according to the Panegyrici Latini ( Manuscript VIII ), the ancient Frisii were forced to resettle within Roman district as laeti ( i, Roman-era serf ) in c. 296. [ 35 ] This is the last reference to the ancient Frisii in the historic record. What happened to them, however, is suggested in the archaeological read. The discovery of a type of earthenware singular to 4th-century Frisia, called terp Tritzum, shows that an obscure count of them were resettled in Flanders and Kent, [ 36 ] probably as laeti under Roman coercion. Second, the environment in the low-lying coastal regions of northwestern Europe began to lower c. 250 and gradually receded over the next 200 years. tectonic cave in, a rising body of water postpone and storm surges combined to flood some areas with marine transgressions. This was accelerated by a shift to a cooler, besotted climate in the region. Any Frisii leave in the lower areas of Frisia would have drowned. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Third, after the flop of the Roman Empire, there was a decline in population as Roman activity stopped and Roman institutions remove. As a leave of these three factors, it has been postulated that the Frisii and Frisiaevones disappeared from the area, leaving the coastal lands largely unpeopled for the following two centuries. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] however, late excavations in the coastal dunes of Kennemerland show clear indication of a permanent habitation. [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

early Middle Ages ( 411–1000 ) [edit ]

Frisians [edit ]

Map showing approximately the distribution of Franks and Frisians c. 716. As climatic conditions improved, there was another bulk migration of Germanic peoples into the sphere from the east. This is known as the “ Migration Period “ ( Volksverhuizingen ). The northerly Netherlands received an inflow of new migrants and settlers, largely Saxons, but besides Angles and Jutes. Many of these migrants did not stay in the northern Netherlands but moved on to England and are known today as the Anglo-Saxons. The newcomers who stayed in the northern Netherlands would finally be referred to as “ Frisians ”, although they were not descended from the ancient Frisii. These newfangled Frisians settled in the northerly Netherlands and would become the ancestors of the modern Frisians. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] ( Because the early Frisians and Anglo-Saxons were formed from largely identical tribal confederacies, their respective languages were identical similar. Old Frisian is the most close relate speech to Old English [ 45 ] and the modern frisian dialects are in turn the closest related languages to contemporary English. ) By the end of the sixth hundred, the frisian territory in the northern Netherlands had expanded west to the North Sea coast and, by the seventh hundred, confederacy to Dorestad. During this period most of the northerly Netherlands was known as Frisia. This extend frisian territory is sometimes referred to as Frisia Magna ( or Greater Frisia ) .
In the 7th and 8th centuries, the frankish chronologies mention this area as the kingdom of the Frisians. This kingdom comprised the coastal provinces of the Netherlands and the german North Sea slide. During this time, the frisian language was spoken along the stallion southerly North Sea coast. The 7th-century frisian Kingdom ( 650–734 ) under King Aldegisel and King Redbad, had its center of world power in Utrecht. Dorestad was the largest settlement ( department store ) in northwestern Europe. It had grown around a early Roman fortress. It was a big, flourishing deal place, three kilometers hanker and situated where the rivers Rhine and Lek diverge southeast of Utrecht near the modern town of Wijk bij Duurstede. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Although inland, it was a North Sea trading center that chiefly handled goods from the Middle Rhineland. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Wine was among the major products traded at Dorestad, likely from vineyards south of Mainz. [ 48 ] It was besides wide known because of its mint. Between 600 and around 719 Dorestad was much fought over between the Frisians and the Franks .

Franks [edit ]

expansion of the Franks from 481 to 870. After roman government in the sphere collapsed, the Franks expanded their territories until there were numerous small Frankish kingdoms, specially at Cologne, Tournai, Le Mans and Cambrai. [ 34 ] [ 49 ] The kings of Tournai finally came to subdue the early frankish kings. By the 490s, Clovis I had conquered and united all the frankish territories to the west of the Meuse, including those in the southerly Netherlands. He continued his conquests into Gaul. After the death of Clovis I in 511, his four sons partitioned his kingdom amongst themselves, with Theuderic I receiving the lands that were to become Austrasia ( including the southerly Netherlands ). A line of kings descended from Theuderic ruled Austrasia until 555, when it was united with the other Frankish kingdoms of Chlothar I, who inherited all the Frankish kingdom by 558. He redivided the Frankish territory amongst his four sons, but the four kingdoms coalesced into three on the death of Charibert I in 567. Austrasia ( including the southern Netherlands ) was given to Sigebert I. The southerly Netherlands remained the northerly contribution of Austrasia until the get up of the Carolingians. The Franks who expanded south into Gaul settled there and finally adopted the Vulgar Latin of the local anesthetic population. [ 18 ] however, a Germanic linguistic process was spoken as a moment clapper by public officials in western Austrasia and Neustria a late as the 850s. It wholly disappeared as a speak language from these regions during the tenth century. [ 50 ] During this expansion to the south, many frankish people remained in the north ( i.e. southerly Netherlands, Flanders and a little separate of northern France ). A widening cultural separate grew between the Franks remaining in the union and the rulers far to the south in what is now France. [ 49 ] salian frank Franks continued to reside in their master fatherland and the area directly to the south and to speak their master lyric, Old Frankish, which by the ninth century had evolved into Old Dutch. [ 18 ] A Dutch-French language limit came into universe ( but this was originally south of where it is today ). [ 18 ] [ 49 ] In the Maas and Rhine areas of the Netherlands, the Franks had political and trade centres, specially at Nijmegen and Maastricht. [ 49 ] These Franks remained in contact with the Frisians to the north, particularly in places like Dorestad and Utrecht .

Modern doubts about the traditional frisian, Frank and Saxon distinction [edit ]

In the recently nineteenth century, Dutch historians believed that the Franks, Frisians, and Saxons were the original ancestors of the dutch people. Some went far by ascribing sealed attributes, values and strengths to these versatile groups and proposing that they reflected 19th-century nationalist and religious views. In particular, it was believed that this theory explained why Belgium and the southern Netherlands ( i.e. the Franks ) had become Catholic and the northerly Netherlands ( Frisians and Saxons ) had become Protestant. The success of this theory was partially due to anthropological theories based on a tribal paradigm. Being politically and geographically inclusive, and so far accounting for diverseness, this theory was in accord with the need for nation-building and consolidation during the 1890–1914 time period. The theory was taught in Dutch schools. however, the disadvantages of this historic interpretation became apparent. This tribal-based hypothesis suggested that external borders were weak or non-existent and that there were clear-cut inner borders. This origins myth provided an diachronic premise, particularly during the moment World War, for regional segregation and annexation to Germany. After 1945 the tribal paradigm lost its appeal for anthropological scholars and historians. When the accuracy of the three-tribe subject was basically questioned, the theory fell out of favor. [ 33 ] due to the scarcity of written sources, cognition of this period depends to a boastfully degree on the interpretation of archaeological data. The traditional view of a clear-cut class between Frisians in the north and coast, Franks in the south and Saxons in the east has proven historically baffling. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] [ 53 ] Archeological tell suggests dramatically different models for different regions, with demographic continuity for some parts of the country and depopulation and potential surrogate in early parts, notably the coastal areas of Frisia and Holland. [ 54 ]

The emergence of the dutch linguistic process [edit ]

The terminology from which Old Dutch ( besides sometimes called Old West Low Franconian, Old Low Franconian or Old Frankish ) rise is unknown with certainty, but it is thought to be the lyric spoken by the salian frank Franks. flush though the Franks are traditionally categorized as Weser-Rhine Germanic, Dutch has a total of Ingvaeonic characteristics and is classified by modern linguists as an Ingvaeonic speech. Dutch besides has a count of Old Saxon characteristics. There was a close relationship between Old Dutch, Old Saxon, Old English and Old Frisian. Because text written in the lyric spoken by the Franks are about non-existent, and Old Dutch text barely and fragmental, not much is known about the development of Old Dutch. Old Dutch made the transition to Middle Dutch around 1150. [ 18 ]

christianization [edit ]

The Christianity that arrived in the Netherlands with the Romans appears not to have died out completely ( in Maastricht, at least ) after the secession of the Romans in about 411. [ 49 ] The Franks became Christians after their king Clovis I converted to Catholicism, an consequence which is traditionally set in 496. christendom was introduced in the north after the seduction of Friesland by the Franks. The Saxons in the east were converted before the conquest of Saxony, and became frankish allies. Hiberno-Scottish and anglo-saxon missionaries, particularly Willibrord, Wulfram and Boniface, played an authoritative character in converting the Frankish and frisian peoples to Christianity by the eighth century. Boniface was martyred by the Frisians in Dokkum ( 754 ) .

frankish dominance and incorporation into the Holy Roman Empire [edit ]

In the early eighth hundred the Frisians came increasingly into conflict with the Franks to the south, resulting in a series of wars in which the Frankish Empire finally subjugated Frisia. In 734, at the Battle of the Boarn, the Frisians in the Netherlands were defeated by the Franks, who thereby conquered the sphere west of the Lauwers. The Franks then conquered the area east of the Lauwers in 785 when Charlemagne defeated Widukind. The linguistic descendants of the Franks, the modern Dutch -speakers of the Netherlands and Flanders, seem to have broken with the endonym “ Frank ” around the ninth century. By this time frankish identity had changed from an ethnic identity to a national identity, becoming localized and confined to the modern Franconia and chiefly to the french province of Île-de-France. [ 55 ] Although the people no retentive referred to themselves as “ Franks ”, the Netherlands was still contribution of the Frankish empire of Charlemagne. indeed, because of the Austrasian origins of the Carolingians in the area between the Rhine and the Maas, the cities of Aachen, Maastricht, Liège and Nijmegen were at the heart of carolingian culture. [ 49 ] Charlemagne maintained his palatium [ 56 ] in Nijmegen at least four times. The carolingian empire would finally include France, Germany, northern Italy and a lot of Western Europe. In 843, the Frankish empire was divided into three parts, giving heighten to West Francia in the west, East Francia in the east, and Middle Francia in the center. Most of what is today the Netherlands became character of Middle Francia ; Flanders became contribution of West Francia. This division was an important divisor in the historical distinction between Flanders and the other Dutch-speaking areas. Middle Francia ( Latin : Francia media ) was an ephemeron frankish kingdom that had no diachronic or cultural identity to bind its vary peoples. It was created by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, which divided the carolingian Empire among the sons of Louis the Pious. Situated between the region of East and West Francia, Middle Francia comprised the frankish territory between the rivers Rhine and Scheldt, the Frisian seashore of the North Sea, the former Kingdom of Burgundy ( except for a westerly part, former known as Bourgogne ), Provence and the Kingdom of Italy. Middle Francia fell to Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of Louis the Pious, after an intermittent civil war with his younger brothers Louis the german and Charles the Bald. In recognition of Lothair ‘s Imperial title, Middle Francia contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, arsenic well as Rome. In 855, on his deathbed at Prüm Abbey, Emperor Lothair I again partitioned his kingdom amongst his sons. Most of the lands north of the Alps, including the Netherlands, passed to Lothair II and consecutively were named Lotharingia. After Lothair II died in 869, Lotharingia was partitioned by his uncles Louis the german and Charles the Bald in the Treaty of Meerssen in 870. Although some of the Netherlands had come under Viking control, in 870 it technically became region of East Francia, which became the Holy Roman Empire in 962 .

Viking raids [edit ]

In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Vikings raided the largely defenseless Frisian and Frankish towns lying on the coast and along the rivers of the depleted Countries. Although Vikings never settled in large numbers in those areas, they did set up long-run bases and were even acknowledged as lords in a few cases. In Dutch and Frisian historic tradition, the trade center of Dorestad declined after Viking raids from 834 to 863 ; however, since no convincing Viking archaeological evidence has been found at the site ( as of 2007 ), doubts about this have grown in recent years. [ 57 ] One of the most important Viking families in the low Countries was that of Rorik of Dorestad ( based in Wieringen ) and his buddy the “ younger Harald ” ( based in Walcheren ), both thought to be nephews of Harald Klak. [ 58 ] Around 850, Lothair I acknowledged Rorik as rule of most of Friesland. And again in 870, Rorik was received by Charles the Bald in Nijmegen, to whom he became a vassal. Viking raids continued during that period. Harald ‘s son Rodulf and his men were killed by the people of Oostergo in 873. Rorik died erstwhile earlier 882. Buried Viking treasures consisting chiefly of silver have been found in the low Countries. Two such treasures have been found in Wieringen. A large treasure found in Wieringen in 1996 dates from around 850 and is thought possibly to have been connected to Rorik. The burying of such a valuable care for is seen as an reading that there was a permanent wave liquidation in Wieringen. [ 59 ] Around 879, Godfrid arrived in frisian lands as the lead of a bombastic force that terrorised the low Countries. Using Ghent as his base, they ravaged Ghent, Maastricht, Liège, Stavelot, Prüm, Cologne, and Koblenz. Controlling most of Frisia between 882 and his death in 885, Godfrid became known to history as Godfrid, Duke of Frisia. His lordship over Frisia was acknowledged by Charles the Fat, to whom he became a vassal. Godfried was assassinated in 885, after which Gerolf of Holland assumed lordship and Viking govern of Frisia came to an goal. Viking raids of the Low Countries continued for over a century. Remains of Viking attacks dating from 880 to 890 have been found in Zutphen and Deventer. In 920, King Henry of Germany liberated Utrecht. According to a number of chronicles, the last attacks took place in the first gear ten of the eleventh hundred and were directed at Tiel and/or Utrecht. [ 60 ] These Viking raids occurred about the lapp meter that french and german lords were fighting for domination over the in-between empire that included the Netherlands, so their swing over this area was faint. resistance to the Vikings, if any, came from local nobles, who gained in stature as a leave .

gamey and late Middle Ages ( 1000–1433 ) [edit ]

part of the Holy Roman Empire [edit ]

The german kings and emperors ruled the Netherlands in the 10th and eleventh century, with the aid of the Dukes of Lotharingia, and the bishops of Utrecht and Liège. Germany was called the Holy Roman Empire after the coronation of King Otto the Great as emperor butterfly. The dutch city of Nijmegen used to be the spot of an crucial knowledge domain of the german emperors. several german emperors were born and died there, including for example Byzantine empress Theophanu, who died in Nijmegen. Utrecht was besides an important city and trade port at the time .

political disunity [edit ]

nl] Chapel of St Nicholas ( Sint-Nicolaaskapel ( Nijmegen ) or Valkhofkapel ) in Nijmegen, one of the oldest buildings in the Netherlands. The Holy Roman Empire was not able to maintain political integrity. In accession to the growing independence of the towns, local anesthetic rulers turned their counties and duchies into individual kingdoms and felt little smell of obligation to the emperor who reigned over large parts of the nation in list only. boastfully parts of what now comprise the Netherlands were governed by the Count of Holland, the Duke of Gelre, the Duke of Brabant and the Bishop of Utrecht. Friesland and Groningen in the north maintained their independence and were governed by the lower nobility. The respective feudal states were in a department of state of about continual war. Gelre and Holland fought for command of Utrecht. Utrecht, whose bishop had in 1000 ruled over half of what is today the Netherlands, was marginalised as it experienced continuing difficulty in electing new bishops. At the same time, the dynasties of neighbouring states were more stable. Groningen, Drenthe and most of Gelre, which used to be region of Utrecht, became mugwump. Brabant tried to conquer its neighbours, but was not successful. Holland besides tried to assert itself in Zeeland and Friesland, but its attempts failed .

The Frisians [edit ]

The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the area that is now Holland were primitively frisian. The sparsely populate area was known as “ West Friesland ” ( Westfriesland ). As frankish settlement progressed, the Frisians migrated away or were absorbed and the area promptly became Dutch. ( The function of North Holland situated north of Alkmaar is distillery colloquially known as West Friesland ). The rest of Friesland in the north continued to maintain its independence during this meter. It had its own institutions ( jointly called the “ frisian exemption “ ) and resented the imposition of the feudal system and the patriciate found in other european towns. They regarded themselves as allies of Switzerland. The frisian conflict cry was “ better dead than a slave ”. They late lost their independence when they were defeated in 1498 by the german Landsknecht mercenaries of Duke Albrecht of Saxony-Meissen .

The surface of Holland [edit ]

Two wings of an altar firearm, c. 1500, depicting the St Elizabeth Flood of 18–19 November 1421, with Dordrecht at the front left. The center of exponent in these emerging independent territories was in the County of Holland. in the first place granted as a fief to the Danish headman Rorik in return key for loyalty to the emperor butterfly in 862, the area of Kennemara ( the region around modern Haarlem ) quickly grew under Rorik ‘s descendants in size and importance. By the early eleventh hundred, Dirk III, Count of Holland was levying tolls on the Meuse estuary and was able to resist military intervention from his overlord, the Duke of Lower Lorraine. In 1083, the name “ Holland ” first appears in a deed referring to a region corresponding more or less to the current state of South Holland and the southern half of what is now north Holland. Holland ‘s influence continued to grow over the adjacent two centuries. The counts of Holland conquered most of Zeeland but it was not until 1289 that Count Floris V was able to subjugate the Frisians in West Friesland ( that is, the northerly half of North Holland ) .

expansion and emergence [edit ]

Around 1000 AD there were respective agrarian developments ( described sometimes as an agrarian revolution ) that resulted in an increase in production, specially food production. The economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productiveness allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. [ citation needed ] a lot of the western Netherlands was scantily inhabited between the end of the Roman menstruation until around 1100 AD, when farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began purchasing the boggy land, draining it and cultivating it. This process happened cursorily and the uninhabited district was settled in a few generations. They built freelancer farms that were not separate of villages, something singular in Europe at the fourth dimension. [ citation needed ] Guilds were established and markets developed as production exceeded local needs. besides, the introduction of currentness made trading a much easier matter than it had been earlier. Existing towns grew and new towns sprang into universe around monasteries and castles, and a mercantile in-between course began to develop in these urban areas. Commerce and town development increased as the population grew. The Crusades were popular in the moo Countries and drew many to fight in the Holy Land. At home, there was relative peace. Viking pillaging had stopped. Both the Crusades and the relative peace at home contributed to trade and the growth in department of commerce. Cities arose and flourished, specially in Flanders and Brabant. As the cities grew in wealth and power, they started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign, including city rights, the right to self-government and the right to pass laws. In practice, this mean that the wealthiest cities became quasi-independent republics in their own mighty. Two of the most important cities were Bruges and Antwerp ( in Flanders ) which would late develop into some of the most crucial cities and ports in Europe .

Hook and Cod Wars [edit ]

The Hook and Cod Wars ( dutch : Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten ) were a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490. Most of these wars were fought over the title of count of Holland, but some have argued that the underlying reason was because of the world power struggle of the traders in the cities against the opinion nobility. The Cod faction by and large consisted of the more liberal cities of Holland. The Hook faction consisted for a large contribution of the bourgeois noblemen. Some of the main figures in this multi-generational conflict were William IV, Margaret, William V, William VI, Count of Holland and Hainaut, John and Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. But possibly the most well known is Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut. The seduction of the county of Holland by the Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy was an odd matter. Leading noblemen in Holland invited the duke to conquer Holland, even though he had no historical title to it. Some historians [ who? ] say that the ruling class in Holland wanted Holland to integrate with the Flemish economic system and adopt flemish legal institutions. Europe had been wracked by many civil wars in the 14th and 15th centuries, while Flanders had grown rich and love peace .

Burgundian and Habsburg period ( 1433–1567 ) [edit ]

The low Countries in the recently fourteenth century CE .

Burgundian menstruation [edit ]

Most of what is now the Netherlands and Belgium was finally united by the Duke of Burgundy in 1433. Before the Burgundian union, the Dutch identified themselves by the township they lived in, their local duchy or county or as subjects of the Holy Roman Empire. The Burgundian time period is when the Dutch began the road to nationhood. Holland ‘s craft developed quickly, particularly in the areas of shipping and transport. The newly rulers defended dutch trade interests. The fleets of Holland defeated the fleets of the Hanseatic League several times. Amsterdam grew and in the fifteenth hundred became the primary deal port in Europe for grain from the baltic region. Amsterdam distributed grain to the major cities of Belgium, Northern France and England. This trade was critical to the people of Holland, because Holland could no longer produce enough grain to feed itself. Land drain had caused the peat of the former wetlands to reduce to a level that was excessively low for drain to be maintained .

Habsburg rule from Spain [edit ]

influential Utrecht theologian Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, 1459–1523, was an adviser to Charles ; in the final year of his life he became pope as hadrian VI ( 1522–1523 ). Charles V ( 1500–1558 ) was born and raised in the Flemish city of Ghent ; he spoke French. Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles ‘s Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. When he was a minor, his aunt Margaret acted as regent until 1515. France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528. [ 61 ]
From 1515 to 1523, Charles ‘s government in the Netherlands had to contend with the rebellion of frisian peasants ( led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama ). Gelre attempted to build up its own state in northeast Netherlands and northwest Germany. Lacking funds in the sixteenth century, Gelre had its soldiers provide for themselves by pillaging foe terrain. These soldiers were a great menace to the Burgundian Netherlands, as when they pillaged The Hague. The dukes of Burgundy over the years through astute marriages, purchases and wars, had taken control of the Seventeen Provinces that made up the low Countries. They are now the Netherlands in the north, the Southern Netherlands ( nowadays Belgium ) in the south, and Luxemburg in the southeasterly. Known as the “ Burgundian traffic circle, ” these lands came under the control of the Habsburg class. Charles ( 1500–1558 ) became the owner in 1506, but in 1515 he left to become king of Spain and late became the Holy Roman Emperor. Charles turned over control to regents ( his close relatives ), and in practice principle was exercised by Spaniards he controlled. The provinces each had their own governments and courts, controlled by the local nobility, and their own traditions and rights ( “ liberties ” ) dating back centuries. Likewise the numerous cities had their own legal rights and local governments, normally controlled by the merchants. On top of this the spanish had imposed an overall government, the Estates General of the Netherlands, with its own officials and courts. [ 62 ] The spanish officials sent by Charles ignored traditions and the dutch nobility vitamin a well as local officials, inciting an anti-Spanish smell of patriotism, and leading to the Dutch Revolt. With the emergence of the Protestant Reformation, Charles—now the Emperor—was determined to crush Protestantism and never compromise with it. Unrest began in the south, centered in the boastfully rich city of Antwerp. The Netherlands was an specially fat unit of the spanish kingdom, specially after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559 ; it ended four decades of war between France and Spain and allowed Spain to reposition its army. [ 63 ] In 1548, Charles granted the Netherlands condition as an entity in which many of the laws of the Holy Roman Empire became disused. The “ Transaction of Augsburg. ” [ 64 ] created the Burgundian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire, which comprised the Netherlands and Franche-Comté. A year later the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 stated that the Seventeen Provinces could merely be passed on to his heirs as a complex entity. [ 65 ]

The reformation [edit ]

Title page of the 1637 Statenvertaling, the first gear Bible translated from the original Hebrew and Greek into Dutch, commissioned by the Calvinist Synod of Dort, used well into the twentieth hundred. During the sixteenth century, the Protestant Reformation quickly gained ground in northern Europe, specially in its Lutheran and Calvinist forms. [ 66 ] Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities. By the 1560s, the Protestant residential district had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority then. In a society dependent on trade, exemption and tolerance were considered essential. however, the Catholic rulers Charles V, and former Philip II, made it their mission to defeat Protestantism, which was considered a unorthodoxy by the Catholic Church and a terror to the stability of the wholly hierarchical political system. On the other hand, the intensely moralistic Dutch Protestants insisted their biblical theology, sincere piety and humiliate life style was morally superior to the epicurean habits and superficial religiosity of the ecclesiastical nobility. [ 68 ] The rulers ‘ coarse punitive measures led to increasing grievances in the Netherlands, where the local governments had embarked on a course of peaceful coexistence. In the second half of the hundred, the position escalated. Philip sent troops to crush the rebellion and make the Netherlands once more a catholic region. In the first curl of the Reformation, Lutheranism won over the elites in Antwerp and the South. The spanish successfully suppressed it there, and Lutheranism alone flourished in east Friesland. The second curl of the Reformation, came in the mannequin of Anabaptism, that was popular among ordinary farmers in Holland and Friesland. Anabaptists were socially identical group and egalitarian ; they believed that the revelation was very about. They refused to live the old way, and began new communities, creating considerable chaos. A outstanding Dutch Anabaptist was Menno Simons, who initiated the Mennonite church. The movement was allowed in the north, but never grew to a large scale. The third base wave of the Reformation, that ultimately proved to be permanent, was Calvinism. It arrived in the Netherlands in the 1540s, attracting both the elite and the common population, specially in Flanders. The Catholic Spanish responded with coarse persecution and introduced the inquisition of the Netherlands. Calvinists rebelled. First there was the iconoclasm in 1566, which was the systematic end of statues of saints and other Catholic devotional depictions in churches. In 1566, William the Silent, a Calvinist, started the Eighty Years ‘ War to liberate all Dutch of whatever religion from Catholic Spain. Blum says, “ His patience, allowance, decision, concern for his people, and impression in government by consent held the Dutch together and kept animated their spirit of rebellion. ” [ 72 ] The provinces of Holland and Zeeland, being chiefly Calvinist by 1572, submitted to the rule of William. The other states remained about entirely Catholic. [ 74 ]

Prelude to war [edit ]

The Netherlands was a valuable separate of the spanish Empire, particularly after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis of 1559. This treaty ended a forty-year period of war between France and Spain conducted in Italy from 1521 to 1559. [ 63 ] The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was reasonably of a watershed—not only for the battlefield that Italy had been, but besides for northern Europe. Spain had been keeping troops in the Netherlands to be fix to attack France from the north a well as from the south. With the settlement of sol many major issues between France and Spain by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, there was no longer any reason to keep spanish troops in the Netherlands. Thus, the people of the Netherlands could get on with their peacetime pursuits. As they did so they found that there was a capital manage of need for their products. Fishing had retentive been an important part of the economy of the Netherlands. however, now the fishing of herring alone came to occupy 2,000 boats operating out of dutch ports. Spain, still the Dutch trader ‘s best customer, was buying fifty large ships wax of furniture and family utensils from Flanders merchants. additionally, Dutch woolen goods were desired everywhere. The Netherlands bought and processed enough spanish wool to sell four million florins of wool products through merchants in Bruges. therefore potent was the Dutch appetite for sensitive wool at this meter that they bought closely a a lot English wool as they did spanish wool. sum commerce with England alone amounted to 24 million florins. much of the export going to England resulted in pure profit to the dutch because the export items were of their own industry. The Netherlands was good starting to enter its “ golden Age. ” Brabant and Flanders were the richest and most thrive parts of the Dutch Republic at the prison term. [ 75 ] The Netherlands was one of the richest places in the world. The population reached 3 million in 1560, with 25 cities of 10,000 people or more, by far the largest urban presence in Europe ; with the trade and fiscal center of Antwerp being particularly crucial ( population 100,000 ). Spain could not afford to lose this rich land, nor allow it to fall from Catholic control. therefore came 80 years of war. A dear Catholic, Philip was appalled by the success of the Reformation in the first gear Countries, which had led to an increasing number of Calvinists. His attempts to enforce religious persecution of the Protestants, and his centralization of government, police enforcement, and taxes, made him unpopular and led to a revolt. Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, was sent with a spanish Army to punish the disobedient Dutch in 1567. [ 76 ] The entirely resistance the Duke of Alba faced in his march across the Netherlands were the nobles, Lamoral, Count of Egmont ; Philippe de Montmorency, Count of Horn and others. With the approach of Alba and the spanish army, William the Silent of Orange fled to Germany with his three brothers and his whole kin on 11 April 1567. The Duke of Alba sought to meet and negotiate with the nobles that now faced him with armies. however, when the nobles arrived in Brussels they were all arrested and Egmont and Horn were executed. [ 76 ] Alba then revoked all the prior treaties that Margaret, the Duchess of Parma had signed with the Protestants of the Netherlands and instituted the Inquisition to enforce the decrees of the Council of Trent .

The Eighty Years ‘ War ( 1568–1648 ) [edit ]

The Dutch War for Independence from Spain is frequently called the Eighty Years ‘ War ( 1568–1648 ). The first base fifty years ( 1568 through 1618 ) were a war uniquely between Spain and the Netherlands. During the last thirty years ( 1618–1648 ) the conflict between Spain and the Netherlands was submerged in the general European War that became known as the Thirty Years ‘ War. [ 77 ] The seven rebellious provinces of the Netherlands were finally united by the Union of Utrecht in 1579 and formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands ( besides known as the “ United Provinces ” ). The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe was signed on 26 July 1581, and was the courtly announcement of independence of the northerly Low Countries from the spanish king. William of Orange ( Slot Dillenburg, 24 April 1533 – Delft, 10 July 1584 ), the collapse of the Dutch imperial family, led the dutch during the first part of the war, following the death of Egmont and Horn in 1568. The very first years were a success for the spanish troops. however, the dutch countered subsequent sieges in Holland. In November and December 1572, all the citizens of Zutphen and Naarden were slaughtered by the spanish. From 11 December that year the city of Haarlem was besieged, holding out for seven months until 13 July 1573. Oudewater was conquered by the spanish on 7 August 1575, and most of its inhabitants were killed. Maastricht was besieged, sacked and destroyed twice in succession ( in 1576 and 1579 ) by the spanish. In a war composed by and large of sieges preferably than battles, Governor-General Alexander Farnese proved his heart. His strategy was to offer generous terms for the giving up of a city : there would be no more massacres or looting ; historic urban privileges were retained ; there was a wax pardon and pardon ; refund to the Catholic Church would be gradual. The conservative Catholics in the south and east supported the spanish. Farnese recaptured Antwerp and closely all of what became Belgium. [ 78 ] Most of the Dutch-speaking district in the Netherlands was taken from Spain, but not in Flanders, which to this day remains part of Belgium. Flanders was the most radical anti-Spanish district. many Flemish fled to Holland, among them half of the population of Antwerp, 3/4 of Bruges and Ghent and the entire population of Nieuwpoort, Dunkerque and countryside. [ 79 ] His successful campaign gave the Catholics control of the lower half of the Low Countries, and was part of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The war dragged on for another half century, but the main fight was complete. The peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, confirmed the independence of the United Provinces from Spain. The dutch people started to develop a home identity since the fifteenth century, but they officially remained a contribution of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648. National identity was chiefly formed by the province people came from. Holland was the most important province by far. The republic of the Seven Provinces came to be known as Holland across Europe. The Catholics in the Netherlands were an outlaw minority that had been suppressed by the Calvinists. After 1572, however, they made a come to comeback ( besides as separate of the Catholic Counter-Reformation ), setting up seminaries, reforming their church, and sending missionaries into protestant districts. Laity much took the lead ; the calvinist government often arrested or harass priests who seemed excessively effective. catholic numbers stabilized at about a one-third of the population in the Netherlands ; they were strongest in the southeast. [ 80 ] [ 81 ]

Golden Age [edit ]

Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius. During the Eighty Years ‘ War the dutch provinces became the most significant trade center of Northern Europe, replacing Flanders in this esteem. During the Golden Age, there was a great blossoming of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences in the Netherlands. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch were arguably the most economically affluent and scientifically gain of all european nations. This new, formally calvinist state flourished culturally and economically, creating what historian Simon Schama has called an “ overplus of riches ”. speculation in the tulip trade led to a foremost stock marketplace crash in 1637, but the economic crisis was soon get the better of. ascribable to these developments the seventeenth hundred has been dubbed the Golden Age of the Netherlands. The invention [ 83 ] of the sawmill enabled the construction of a massive fleet of ships for worldwide trade and for defense mechanism of the republic ‘s economic interests by military means. National industries such as shipyards and sugar refineries expanded a well .
The Dutch, traditionally able seafarers and cutting mapmakers, [ 84 ] obtained an increasingly dominant placement in world trade, a side which before had been occupied by the Portuguese and Spaniards. In 1602 the Dutch East India Company ( dutch : Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC ) was founded. It was the first-ever multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the first mod banal exchange. It became the world ‘s largest commercial enterprise of the seventeenth hundred. To finance the growing trade within the region, the Bank of Amsterdam was established in 1609, the harbinger to, if not the first true central bank. [ 85 ] dutch ships hunted whales off Svalbard, traded spices in India and preseny-day Indonesia ] ] ( via the Dutch East India Company ) and establish colonies in New Amsterdam ( now New York ), South Africa and the West Indies. In summation some portuguese colonies were conquered, namely in northeastern Brazil, Angola, Indonesia and Ceylon. In 1640 by the Dutch East India Company began a trade wind monopoly with Japan through the trading post on Dejima. The Dutch besides dominated barter between european countries. The low Countries were favorably positioned on a ford of east–west and north–south trade routes and connected to a big german backwoods through the Rhine river. dutch traders shipped wine from France and Portugal to the Baltic lands and returned with grain destined for countries around the Mediterranean Sea. By the 1680s, an average of about 1000 Dutch ships entered the Baltic Sea each class. [ 86 ] The Dutch were able to gain control of a lot of the trade with the nascent english colonies in North America and following the conclusion of war with Spain in 1648, Dutch trade with that country besides flourished .
Renaissance Humanism, of which Desiderius Erasmus ( c. 1466–1536 ) was an authoritative advocate, had besides gained a firm beachhead and was partially responsible for a climate of allowance. overall, levels of tolerance were sufficiently high to attract religious refugees from other countries, notably jewish merchants from Portugal who brought much wealth with them. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France in 1685 resulted in the immigration of many french Huguenots, many of whom were shopkeepers or scientists. still tolerance had its limits, as philosopher Baruch de Spinoza ( 1632–1677 ) would find out. due to its climate of cerebral tolerance the Dutch Republic attracted scientists and other thinkers from all over Europe. particularly the celebrated University of Leiden ( established in 1575 by the dutch stadtholder, William of Oranje, as a nominal of gratitude for Leiden ‘s fierce underground against Spain during the Eighty Years ‘ War ) became a gain put for these people. For case french philosopher René Descartes lived in Leiden from 1628 until 1649. dutch lawyers were celebrated for their cognition of international police of the sea and commercial law. Hugo Grotius ( 1583–1645 ) played a lead part in the basis of external law. Again due to the dutch climate of allowance, book publishers flourished. many books about religion, philosophy and science that might have been deemed controversial afield were printed in the Netherlands and secretly exported to early countries. therefore during the seventeenth century the Dutch Republic became more and more Europe ‘s publication sign of the zodiac .
Christiaan Huygens ( 1629–1695 ) was a celebrated astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He invented the pendulum clock, which was a major step forward towards accurate timekeeping. He contributed to the fields of optics. The most celebrated Dutch scientist in the area of optics is surely Anton van Leeuwenhoek ( 1632-1723 ), who invented or greatly improved the microscope, He was the first to methodically study microscopic life, thus laying the foundations for the field of microbiology. celebrated Dutch hydraulic engineer Jan Leeghwater ( 1575–1650 ) gained crucial victories in the Netherlands ‘s endless battle against the sea. Leeghwater added a considerable amount of kingdom to the republic by converting several big lakes into polders, pumping all water out with windmills. painting was the dominant art form in 17th-century Holland. Dutch Golden Age painting followed many of the tendencies that dominated Baroque artwork in other parts of Europe, as with the Utrecht Caravaggisti, but was the drawing card in developing the subjects of still biography, landscape, and music genre paint. portrayal were besides democratic, but history paint – traditionally the most-elevated music genre struggled to find buyers. Church art was about non-existent, and little sculpt of any kind produced. While art collect and painting for the open market was besides common elsewhere, artwork historians point to the growing numeral of affluent Dutch middle-class and successful mercantile patrons as driving forces in the popularity of certain pictorial subjects. [ 87 ] nowadays, the best-known painters of the Dutch Golden Age are the period ‘s most dominant calculate Rembrandt, the Delft headmaster of genre Johannes Vermeer, the innovative landscape painter Jacob van Ruisdael, and Frans Hals, who infused newly life into portrayal. Some celebrated artistic styles and trends include Haarlem Mannerism, Utrecht Caravaggism, the School of Delft, the Leiden fijnschilders, and Dutch classicism .
due to the thriving economy, cities expanded greatly. New town halls, weighhouses and storehouses were built. Merchants that had gained a fortune ordered a fresh sign of the zodiac built along one of the many newfangled canals that were dug out in and around many cities ( for defense and ecstasy purposes ), a house with an decorate façade that befitted their new condition. In the countryside, many raw castles and stately homes were built. Most of them have not survived. Starting at 1595 Reformed churches were commissioned, many of which are placid landmarks today. The most celebrated dutch architects of the seventeenth century were Jacob van Campen, Pieter Post, Pieter Vingbooms, Lieven de Key, Hendrick de Keyser. Overall, Dutch computer architecture, which broadly combined traditional construction styles with some foreign elements, did not develop to the degree of paint. The Golden Age was besides an authoritative meter for developments in literature. Some of the major figures of this time period were Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero, Jacob Cats, Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft and Joost van den Vondel. Since Latin was the tongue franca of education, relatively few men could speak, write, and read Dutch all at the lapp clock time. Music did not develop very much in the Netherlands since the Calvinists considered it an unnecessary extravagance, and electric organ music was forbidden in Reformed Church services, although it remained park at profane functions .

dutch conglomerate [edit ]

The dutch in the united states [edit ]

New Amsterdam in 1664 CE. The dutch West India Company was a charter company ( known as the “ GWC ” ) of dutch merchants. On 2 June 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies ( meaning the Caribbean ) by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given legal power over the African slave trade wind, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. Its area of operations stretched from West Africa to the Americas, and the Pacific islands. The company became instrumental in the dutch colonization of the Americas. The first forts and settlements in Guyana and on the Amazon River date from the 1590s. actual colonization, with dutch settle in the newly lands, was not equally park as with England and France. Many of the dutch settlements were lost or abandoned by the goal of that century, but the Netherlands managed to retain possession of Suriname and a act of dutch Caribbean islands .
The colony was a private business venture to exploit the fur trade in beaver pelts. New Netherland was lento settled during its beginning decades, partially as a leave of policy mismanagement by the dutch West India Company ( WIC ), and conflicts with native Americans. During the 1650s, the colony experienced dramatic growth and became a major port for trade in the Atlantic World, tolerating a highly diverse ethnic mix. The surrender of Fort Amsterdam to the british master in 1664 was formalized in 1667, contributing to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. In 1673 the dutch re-took the sphere, but late relinquished it under the 5 April 1674 Treaty of Westminster ending the third Anglo-Dutch War. [ 88 ]

Descendants of the original settlers played a big function in the history of the United States, as typified by the Roosevelt and Vanderbilt families. The Hudson Valley still boasts a dutch heritage. The concepts of civil liberties and pluralism introduced in the state became mainstays of american political and social life. [ 89 ]

Slave trade [edit ]

Although slavery was illegal inside the Netherlands it flourished in the Dutch Empire, and helped support the economy. [ 90 ] In 1619 The Netherlands took the jumper cable in building large-scale slave trade between Africa and Virginia, by 1650 becoming the pre-eminent slave trading area in Europe. It was overtaken by Britain around 1700. Historians agree that in all the Dutch shipped about 550,000 african slaves across the Atlantic, about 75,000 of whom died on circuit board before reaching their destinations. From 1596 to 1829, the dutch traders sold 250,000 slaves in the Dutch Guianas, 142,000 in the dutch Caribbean islands, and 28,000 in Dutch Brazil. [ 91 ] In addition, tens of thousands of slaves, largely from India and some from Africa, were carried to the Dutch East Indies [ 92 ] and slaves from the East Indies to Africa and the West Indies .

The dutch in Asia : The Dutch East India Company [edit ]

The Dutch East India Company, called the VOC, began in 1602, when the government gave it a monopoly to trade with Asia, chiefly to Mughal India. It had many global firsts—the inaugural multinational pot, the first company to issue neckcloth, and was the first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, negociate treaties, coin money, and establish colonial settlements. [ 93 ] England and France soon copied its model but could not match its record. between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent about a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships. It returned over 2.5 million tons of asian deal goods. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its zest monopoly through most of the seventeenth century. The VOC was active chiefly in the Dutch East Indies, immediately Indonesia, where its base was Batavia ( now Jakarta ), which remained an authoritative trade concern and paid an 18 % annual dividend for about 200 years ; colonized parts of Taiwan between 1624–1662 and 1664–1667 and the only westerly trade position in Japan, Dejima. During the period of Proto-industrialization, the empire received 50 % of textiles and 80 % of silks meaning from the India ‘s Mughal Empire, chiefly from its most develop region known as Bengal Subah. [ 94 ] [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ]
By the seventeenth hundred, the Dutch East India Company established their base in parts of Ceylon ( contemporary Sri Lanka ). Afterward, they established ports in Dutch occupied Malabar, leading to Dutch settlements and trade posts in India. however, their expansion into India was halted, after their frustration in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore, during the Travancore-Dutch War. The Dutch never recovered from the kill and no long posed a large colonial threat to India. [ 98 ] [ 99 ] finally, the Dutch East India Company was weighted down by corruptness, the VOC went bankrupt in 1800. Its possessions were taken over by the government and turned into the Dutch East Indies .

The Dutch in Africa [edit ]

In 1647, a dutch vessel was wrecked in the contemporary Table Bay at Cape Town. The isolated crew, the first Europeans to attempt liquidation in the sphere, built a fort and stayed for a year until they were rescued. curtly thereafter, the Dutch East India Company ( in the dutch of the day : Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC ) decided to establish a permanent wave colonization. The VOC, one of the major european trade houses sailing the spice route to East Asia, had no intention of colonizing the area, alternatively wanting lone to establish a fasten base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where athirst sailors could livestock up on fresh supplies of kernel, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a little VOC excursion under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on 6 April 1652. [ 100 ] [ unreliable source? ] To remedy a parturiency deficit, the VOC released a little total of VOC employees from their contracts and permitted them to establish farms with which they would supply the VOC colony from their harvests. This arrangement proved highly successful, producing abundant supplies of fruit, vegetables, wheat, and wine ; they besides late raised livestock. The modest initial group of “ barren burghers ”, as these farmers were known, steadily increased in issue and began to expand their farms further north and east. The majority of burghers had Dutch ancestry and belonged to the Calvinist Reformed Church of the Netherlands, but there were besides numerous Germans arsenic well as some Scandinavians. In 1688 the Dutch and the Germans were joined by french Huguenots, besides Calvinists, who were fleeing religious persecution in France under King Louis XIV. The Huguenots in South Africa were absorbed into the dutch population but they played a outstanding function in South Africa ‘s history. From the begin, the VOC used the cape as a identify to supply ships travelling between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies. There was a close association between the cape and these dutch possessions in the far east. Van Riebeeck and the VOC began to import large numbers of slaves, chiefly from Madagascar and Indonesia. These slaves often married Dutch settlers, and their descendants became known as the Cape Coloureds and the Cape Malays .
During the eighteenth century, the dutch colony in the sphere of the cape grew and prospered. By the late 1700s, the Cape Colony was one of the best evolve european settlements outside Europe or the Americas. [ 101 ] The two bases of the Cape Colony ‘s economy for about the entirety of its history were shipping and department of agriculture. Its strategic military position meant that about every ship sailing between Europe and Asia stopped off at the colony ‘s capital Cape Town. The issue of these ships with fresh provisions, fruit, and wine provided a identical big commercialize for the excess grow of the colony. [ 101 ] Some spare burghers continued to expand into the broken hinterlands of the north and east, many began to take up a semi-nomadic pastoralist life style, in some ways not far removed from that of the Khoikhoi they had displaced. In accession to its herds, a family might have a beach wagon, a tent, a Bible, and a few guns. As they became more settled, they would build a mud-walled bungalow, frequently located, by choice, days of travel from the nearest european liquidation. These were the first of the Trekboers ( Wandering Farmers, late shortened to Boers ), completely independent of official controls, inordinately self-sufficient, and isolated from the politics and the main settlement in Cape Town .
An history of the inaugural trekboers dutch was the official linguistic process, but a dialect had formed that was quite distinct from Dutch. The Afrikaans lyric originated chiefly from 17th-century Dutch dialects. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] This dutch dialect sometimes referred to as the “ kitchen terminology ” ( kombuistaal ), [ 104 ] would finally in the late nineteenth century be recognised as a distinct speech called Afrikaans and replace Dutch as the official linguistic process of the Afrikaners. As the eighteenth hundred drew to a close, Dutch mercantile might began to fade and the british moved in to fill the vacuum. They seized the Cape Colony in 1795 to prevent it from falling into french hands, then briefly relinquished it back to the Dutch ( 1803 ), before definitively conquering it in 1806. british sovereignty of the sphere was recognised at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. By the time the Dutch colony was seized by the british in 1806, it had grown into an established liquidation with 25,000 slaves, 20,000 white colonists, 15,000 Khoisan, and 1,000 rid black slaves. Outside Cape Town and the immediate backwoods, disjunct black and egg white pastoralists populated the area. dutch concern in South Africa was chiefly as a strategically located VOC port. Yet in the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch created the initiation of the modern state of South Africa. The dutch bequest in South Africa is apparent everywhere, but particularly in the Afrikaner people and the Afrikaans language .

Dutch Republic : Regents and Stadholders ( 1649–1784 ) [edit ]

Skating fun, a traditional rural scene by 17th-century Dutch painter , a traditional rural fit by 17th-century Dutch painter Hendrick Avercamp The Netherlands gained independence from Spain as a leave of the Eighty Years ‘ War, during which the Dutch Republic was founded. As the Netherlands was a democracy, it was largely governed by an nobility of city-merchants called the regents, rather than by a king. Every city and province had its own government and laws, and a large degree of autonomy. After attempts to find a competent sovereign proved abortive, it was decided that reign would be vested in the versatile provincial Estates, the governing bodies of the provinces. The Estates-General, with its representatives from all the provinces, would decide on matters crucial to the Republic as a whole. however, at the head of each state was the stadtholder of that province, a military position held by a descendant of the House of Orange. normally the stadtholdership of several provinces was held by a single man. After having gained its independence in 1648, the Netherlands tried in assorted coalitions to help to contain France, which had replaced Spain as the strongest nation of Europe. The conclusion of the War of the spanish Succession ( 1713 ) marked the conclusion of the Dutch Republic as a major musician. In the eighteenth century, it just tried to maintain its independence and stick to a policy of disinterest. The economy, based on Amsterdam ‘s character as the center of populace craft, remained full-bodied. In 1670 the dutch merchant marine totalled 568,000 tons of shipping—about half the european total. [ 105 ] The state of Holland was highly commercial and dominated the country. Its nobility was little and close and had fiddling charm, for it was numerically small, politically weak, and formed a rigorously closed caste. Most nation in the province of Holland was commercialized for cash crops and was owned by urban capitalists, not lord ; there were few links between Holland ‘s nobility and the merchants. By 1650 the bourgeois families which had grown affluent through commerce and become influential in government controlled the state of Holland, and to a large extent shaped home policies. The other six provinces were more rural and traditional in biography style, had an active nobility, and played a small function in department of commerce and national politics. alternatively they concentrated on their flood tide protections and land reclamation projects. [ 106 ]
Semper Augustus was the most expensive tulip sold during the short-lived bubble of 1636–1637, the Thewas the most expensive tulip sold during the ephemeral bubble of 1636–1637, the tulip mania

Refugees [edit ]

The Netherlands sheltered many noteworthy refugees, including Protestants from Antwerp and Flanders, Portuguese and german Jews, french Protestants ( Huguenots ) ( including Descartes ) and english Dissenters ( including the Pilgrim Fathers ). many immigrants came to the cities of Holland in the 17th and eighteenth century from the Protestant parts of Germany and elsewhere. The amount of first generation immigrants from outside the Netherlands in Amsterdam was about 50 % in the 17th and 18th centuries. indeed, Amsterdam ‘s population consisted chiefly of immigrants, if one includes second and one-third generation immigrants and migrants from the dutch countryside. People in most parts of Europe were poor and many were unemployed people. But in Amsterdam there was constantly work. allowance was important, because a continuous inflow of immigrants was necessary for the economy. Travellers visiting Amsterdam reported their surprise at the miss of control over the inflow .

economic growth [edit ]

The era of explosive economic growth is roughly coextensive with the time period of social and cultural bloom that has been called the Dutch Golden Age, and that actually formed the substantial basis for that cultural earned run average. Amsterdam became the hub of world craft, the center into which staples and luxuries flowed for sorting, process, and distribution, and then reexported around Europe and the worldly concern. [ 108 ] During 1585 through 1622 there was the rapid accretion of trade das kapital, frequently brought in by refugee merchants from Antwerp and early ports. The money was typically invested in bad ventures like pioneering expeditions to the East Indies to engage in the spiciness deal. These ventures were soon consolidated in the Dutch East India Company ( VOC ). There were similar ventures in different fields however, like the craft on Russia and the Levant. The profits of these ventures were ploughed back in the finance of modern trade, which led to its exponential increase. [ 109 ] rapid industrialization led to the rapid growth of the nonagricultural british labour party force out and the addition in substantial wages during the same time. In the half-century between 1570 and 1620 this parturiency provide increased 3 percentage per annum, a rightfully phenomenal emergence. Despite this, nominal wages were repeatedly increased, outstripping price increases. In consequence, real wages for unskilled laborers were 62 percentage higher in 1615–1619 than in 1575–1579. [ 110 ]

amsterdam [edit ]

By the mid-1660s Amsterdam had reached the optimum population ( about 200,000 ) for the level of craft, commerce and agribusiness then available to support it. The city contributed the largest quota in taxes to the States of Holland which in turn contributed over half the quota to the States General. Amsterdam was besides one of the most authentic in settling tax demands and consequently was able to use the threat to withhold such payments to good effect. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Amsterdam was governed by a body of regents, a large, but closed, oligarchy with control over all aspects of the city ‘s life, and a dominant voice in the foreign affairs of Holland. lone men with sufficient wealth and a long enough residence within the city could join the opinion class. The first gear step for an ambitious and affluent merchant kin was to arrange a marriage with a long-established regent class. In the 1670s one such union, that of the Trip class ( the Amsterdam branch of the swedish arms makers ) with the son of Burgomaster Valckenier, extended the determine and patronage available to the latter and strengthened his laterality of the council. The oligarchy in Amsterdam therefore gained strength from its width and openness. In the smaller towns syndicate interest could unite members on policy decisions but contraction through endogamy could lead to the degeneration of the quality of the members. In Amsterdam the network was thus large that members of the like syndicate could be related to opposing factions and pursue wide separate interests. The young men who had risen to positions of authority in the 1670s and 1680s consolidated their hold on office well into the 1690s and even the new century. [ 113 ] Amsterdam ‘s regents provided good services to residents. They spent heavily on the water-ways and early essential infrastructure, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as municipal almshouses for the aged, hospitals and churches. [ 114 ] Amsterdam ‘s wealth was generated by its department of commerce, which was in change by reversal sustained by the judicious boost of entrepreneurs whatever their origin. This open doorway policy has been interpreted as proof of a tolerant predominate class. But toleration was practiced for the public toilet of the city. consequently, the affluent Sephardic Jews from Portugal were welcomed and accorded all privileges except those of citizenship, but the poor Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe were far more carefully vetted and those who became dependant on the city were encouraged to move on. [ 115 ] Similarly, provision for the housing of Huguenot immigrants was made in 1681 when Louis XIV ‘s religious policy was beginning to drive these Protestants out of France ; no boost was given to the dispossessed dutch from the countryside or early towns of Holland. The regents encouraged immigrants to build churches and provided sites or buildings for churches and temples for all except the most radical sects and the Catholics by the 1670s [ 116 ] ( although even the Catholics could drill quietly in a chapel service within the Beguinhof ). [ 117 ]

First Stadtholderless Period and the Anglo-Dutch Wars ( 1650–1674 ) [edit ]

During the wars a tension had arisen between the Orange-Nassau leaders and the aristocratic merchants. The former—the Orangists—were soldiers and centralizers who seldom talk of compromise with the foe and looked for military solutions. They included many rural gentry arsenic well as ordinary folk attached to the streamer of the House of Orange. The latter group were the Republicans, led by the Grand Pensionary ( a kind of premier curate ) and the regents stood for localism, municipal rights, commerce, and peace. [ 118 ] In 1650, the stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange on the spur of the moment died ; his son was a baby and the Orangists were leaderless. The regents seized the opportunity : there would be no newfangled stadtholder in Holland for 22 years. Johan de Witt, a bright politician and diplomat, emerged as the prevailing figure. Princes of Orange became the stadtholder and an about familial ruler in 1672 and 1748. The Dutch Republic of the United Provinces was a true democracy from 1650 to 1672 and 1702–1748. These periods are called the First Stadtholderless Period and Second Stadtholderless Period .

Anglo-Dutch wars [edit ]

“ The Second Day of the Four Day Battle of 1666 ” The Republic and England were major rivals in world deal and naval office. Halfway through the seventeenth century the Republic ‘s united states navy was the equal of Britain ‘s Royal Navy as the most powerful navy in the populace. The Republic fought a series of three naval wars against England in 1652–1674. [ 119 ] In 1651, England imposed its first base Navigation Act, which hard hurt dutch trade interests. An incidental at sea concerning the Act resulted in the beginning Anglo-Dutch War, which lasted from 1652 to 1654, ending in the Treaty of Westminster ( 1654 ), which left the Navigation Act in effect. After the english Restoration in 1660, Charles II tried to serve his dynastic interests by attempting to make Prince William III of Orange, his nephew, stadtholder of the Republic, using some military pressure. King Charles thought a naval war would weaken the dutch traders and strengthen the english economy and empire, so the second Anglo-Dutch War was launched in 1665. At first many Dutch ships were captured and the English scored great victories. however, the Raid on the Medway, in June 1667, ended the war with a dutch victory. The Dutch recovered their trade, while the English economy was seriously hurt and its treasury about bankrupt. [ 120 ] The greatly elaborate Dutch navy was for years after the global ‘s strongest. The Dutch Republic was at the zenith of its might. [ 121 ]

Franco-Dutch War and Third Anglo-Dutch War ( 1672–1702 ) [edit ]

The year 1672 is known in the Netherlands as the “ Disaster year ” ( Rampjaar ). England declared war on the Republic, ( the Third Anglo-Dutch War ), followed by France, Münster and Cologne, which had all signed alliances against the Republic. France, Cologne and Münster invaded the Republic. Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis, who had accomplished a diplomatic reconciliation act for a long time, were now the obvious scapegoats. They were lynched, and a new stadtholder, William III, was appointed. [ 122 ] An anglo-french undertake to estate on the Dutch prop up was barely repelled in three desperate naval battles under instruction of Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. The gain of french troops from the south was halted by a costly flood of its own heartland, by breaching river dikes. With the aid of friendly german princes, the Dutch succeeded in fighting back Cologne and Münster, after which the peace was signed with both of them, although some territory in the east was lost forever. peace was signed with England equally well, in 1674 ( Second Treaty of Westminster ). In 1678, peace was made with France at the Treaty of Nijmegen, although France ‘s spanish and german allies felt betrayed by this. In 1688, the relations with England reached crisis level once again. Stadtholder William III decided he had to take a huge gamble when he was invited to invade England by Protestant british nobles feuding with William ‘s father-in-law the Catholic James II of England. This led to the Glorious Revolution and cemented the principle of parliamentary rule and Protestant dominance in England. James fled to France, and William ascended to the English toilet as co-monarch with his wife Mary, James ‘ eldest daughter. This maneuver secured England as a critical ally of the United Provinces in its ongoing wars with Louis XIV of France. William was the air force officer of the Dutch and English armies and fleets until his death in 1702. During William ‘s predominate as King of England, his primary focus was leveraging british work force and finances to aid the Dutch against the french. The combination continued after his death as the compound Dutch, British, and mercenary army conquered Flanders and Brabant, and invaded french territory before the alliance collapsed in 1713 due to british political infighting .

moment Stadtholderless Period ( 1702–1747 ) [edit ]

The Inspectors of the Collegium Medicum in Amsterdam, by Cornelis Troost, 1724. This period is known as the “ Periwig earned run average ”. The Second Stadtholderless Period ( dutch : Tweede Stadhouderloze Tijdperk ) is the appellation in Dutch historiography of the menstruation between the end of stadtholder William III on 19 March [ 123 ] 1702 and the appointment of William IV, Prince of Orange as stadtholder and captain general in all provinces of the Dutch Republic on 2 May 1747. During this menstruation the office of stadtholder was left vacant in the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht, though in other provinces that office was filled by members of the House of Nassau-Dietz ( late called Orange-Nassau ) during versatile periods. During the period, the Republic lost its Great-Power status and its primacy in world barter, processes that went hand-in-hand, the latter causing the early. Though the economy declined well, causing deindustralization and deurbanization in the maritime provinces, a rentier -class kept accumulating a large capital fund that formed the footing for the leading status the Republic achieved in the international capital commercialize. A military crisis at the end of the menstruation caused the descent of the States-Party regimen and the restoration of the Stadtholderate in all provinces. however, though the new stadtholder acquired near-dictatorial powers, this did not improve the situation .

Economic worsen after 1730 [edit ]

The behind economic decline after 1730 was proportional : other countries grew faster, eroding the dutch tip and surpassing it. Wilson identifies three causes. Holland lost its worldly concern authority in trade as competitors emerged and copied its practices, built their own ships and ports, and traded on their own bill directly without going through Dutch intermediaries. Second, there was no growth in manufacture, ascribable possibly to a weaker sense of industrial entrepreneurship and to the high engage scale. Third the affluent turned their investments to alien loans. This helped jumpstart early nations and provided the dutch with a steady income from collecting concern, but leaving them with few domestic sectors with a electric potential for rapid growth. [ 124 ] After the Dutch fleet declined, merchant interests became dependent on the good will of Britain. The chief focus of dutch leaders was reducing the nation ‘s considerable budget deficits. Dutch barter and ship remained at a fairly sweetheart tied through the eighteenth century, but no long had a approach monopoly and besides could not match growing English and french competition. The Netherlands lost its put as the trade center of Northern Europe to London. Although the Netherlands remained affluent, investors for the state ‘s money became more unmanageable to find. Some investment went into purchases of land for estates, but most went to foreign bonds and Amsterdam remained one of Europe ‘s trust capitals .

culture and club [edit ]

dutch culture besides declined both in the arts and sciences. literature for exercise largely imitate English and french styles with small in the way of invention or originality. The most influential intellectual was Pierre Bayle ( 1647–1706 ), a Protestant refugee from France who settled in Rotterdam where he wrote the massive Dictionnaire Historique et Critique ( Historical and Critical Dictionary, 1696 ). It had a major shock on the think of The Enlightenment across Europe, giving an arsenal of weapons to critics who wanted to attack religion. It was an encyclopedia of ideas that argued that most “ truths ” were merely opinions, and that credulousness and stubbornness were prevailing. [ 126 ] life for the average Dutchman became slower and more relaxed in the eighteenth century. The upper and middle classes continued to enjoy prosperity and high living standards. The drive to succeed seem less pressing. incompetent laborers remained locked in poverty and adversity. The bombastic underclass of unemployed people beggars and rabble compulsory government and secret charity to survive. religious life became more loosen angstrom well. Catholics grew from 18 % to 23 % of the population during the eighteenth century and enjoyed greater allowance, even as they continued to be outside the political system. They became divided by the feud between moralistic Jansenists ( who denied free will ) and orthodox believers. One group of Jansenists formed a splinter sect, the Old Catholic Church in 1723. The amphetamine classes willingly embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment, tempered by the tolerance that meant less hostility to organized religion compared to France .

The Orangist revolution ( 1747–1751 ) [edit ]

During the term of Anthonie van five hundred Heim as Grand Pensionary from 1737 to 1746, the Republic slowly drifted into the War of austrian Succession. This started as a Prusso-Austrian conflict, but finally all the neighbours of the Dutch Republic became involved. On one side were Prussia, France and their allies and on the other Austria, Britain ( after 1744 ) and their allies. At beginning the Republic endeavor to remain neutral in this european dispute, but it maintained garrisons in a number of fortresses in the austrian Netherlands. french grievances and threats spurred the Republic into bring its army up to european standards ( 84,000 men in 1743 ) In 1744 and 1745 the french attack dutch fortresses at Menen and Tournai. This prompted the Dutch Republic in 1745 to join the Quadruple Alliance, but this alliance was hard defeated at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. In 1746 the french occupied most of the large cities in the austrian Netherlands. then, in April 1747, apparently as an use in armed diplomacy, a relatively small french military wedge occupied Zeelandic Flanders, contribution of the Dutch Republic. This relatively innocent invasion fully exposed the waste underlying the dutch defences. The consequences were outstanding. inactive mindful of the french invasion in the “ Disaster Year ” of 1672, many fearful people clamored for the restoration of the stadtholderate. William IV, Prince of Orange, had been waiting impatiently in the wings since acquiring his deluxe title in 1732. Over the future class he and his supporters engaged in a number of political battles in respective provinces and towns in the Netherlands to wrest control from the regents. The aim was for William IV to obtain a firm clasp on government patronize and place firm officials in all strategic government positions. finally he managed to achieve this bearing in all provinces. Willem Bentinck vanguard Rhoon was a big Orangist. People like Bentinck hoped that gathering the reins of world power in the hands of a single “ eminent head ” would soon help restore the state of the dutch economy and finances. The regents they opposed included the Grand Pensionary Jacob Gilles and Adriaen van five hundred Hoop. This popular disgust had religious, anti-Catholic and democratic overtones and sometimes byzantine syndicate violence. It finally involved political agitation by Daniel Raap, Jean Rousset de Missy and the Doelisten, attacks on tax farmers ( pachtersoproer ), religious agitation for enforcement of the Sabbath laws and preference for followers of Gisbertus Voetius and diverse demands by the civil militia. The war against the french was itself brought to a not-too-devastating end for the Dutch Republic with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ( 1748 ). The french retreated of their own accord from the Dutch frontier. William IV died by chance, at the senesce of 40, on 22 October 1751 .

regency and faineant rule ( 1752–1779 ) [edit ]

His son, William V, was 3 years previous when his father died, and a retentive regency characterised by corruptness and misgovernment began. His mother delegated most of the powers of the regency to Bentinck and her favorite, Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg. All power was concentrated in the hands of an unaccountable few, including the frisian lord Douwe Sirtema vanguard Grovestins. silent a adolescent, William V assumed the placement of stadtholder in 1766, the last to hold that agency. In 1767, he married Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of Augustus William of Prussia, niece of Frederick the Great. The situation of the Dutch during the American War of Independence was one of neutrality. William V, leading the pro-British cabal within the politics, blocked attempts by pro-independence, and by and by pro-French, elements to drag the government to war. however, things came to a head with the dutch attack to join the Russian-led League of Armed Neutrality, leading to the outbreak of the black Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in 1780. After the sign of the Treaty of Paris ( 1783 ), the deprive nation grew restless under William ‘s rule. An english historian summed him up uncharitably as “ a prince of the profoundest inanition and most abysmal stupidity. ” [ 129 ] And so far he would guide his family through the difficult French-Batavian period and his son would be crowned king .

fourth Anglo-Dutch War ( 1780–1784 ) [edit ]

The Fourth Anglo–Dutch War ( 1780–1784 ) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The war, tangentially related to the american Revolutionary War, broke out over british and dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain ‘s enemies in that war. Although the Dutch Republic did not enter into a formal confederation with the United States and their allies, U.S. ambassador ( and future President ) John Adams managed to establish diplomatic relations with the Dutch Republic, making it the second european nation to diplomatically recognize the Continental Congress in April 1782. In October 1782, a treaty of amity and commerce was concluded arsenic well. Most of the war consisted of a series of largely successful british operations against Dutch colonial economic interests, although british and Dutch naval forces besides met once off the Dutch slide. The war ended disastrously for the Dutch and exposed the weakness of the political and economic foundations of the nation. [ 130 ] The Treaty of Paris ( 1784 ), according to Fernand Braudel, “ sounded the ring of Dutch enormousness. ” [ 131 ]

The French-Batavian menstruation ( 1785–1815 ) [edit ]

After the war with Great Britain ended disastrously in 1784, there was growing agitation and a rebellion by the anti-Orangist Patriots. The french Revolution resulted first in the administration of a pro-French Batavian Republic ( 1795–1806 ), then the creation of the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by a penis of the House of Bonaparte ( 1806–1810 ), and ultimately annexation by the french Empire ( 1810–1813 ) .

Patriot rebellion and its suppression ( 1785–1795 ) [edit ]

Influenced by the american Revolution, the Patriots sought a more democratic form of government. The opening shoot of this revolution is much considered to be the 1781 publication of a manifesto called Aan het Volk van Nederland ( “ To the People of the Netherlands ” ) by Joan avant-garde five hundred Capellen total den Pol, who would become an influential drawing card of the Patriot movement. Their aim was to reduce corruptness and the exponent held by the stadtholder, William V, Prince of Orange. support for the Patriots came largely from the middle class. They formed militias called exercitiegenootschappen. In 1785, there was an open Patriot rebellion, which took the form of an armed rebellion by local militias in sealed Dutch towns, Freedom being the muster exclaim. Herman Willem Daendels attempted to organise an upset of diverse municipal governments ( vroedschap ). The finish was to oust government officials and force new elections. “ Seen as a whole this revolution was a string of violent and confused events, accidents, speeches, rumours, bitter enmities and armed confrontations ”, wrote french historian Fernand Braudel, who saw it as a precursor of the french Revolution. In 1785 the stadholder left The Hague and moved his motor hotel to Nijmegen in Guelders, a city distant from the center of Dutch political biography. In June 1787, his energetic wife Wilhelmina ( the sister of Frederick William II of Prussia ) tried to travel to The Hague. Outside Schoonhoven, she was stopped by Patriot militiamen and taken to a farm near Goejanverwellesluis. Within two days she was forced to return to Nijmegen, an insult not unnoticed in Prussia. The House of Orange reacted with austereness, relying on prussian troops led by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick and a small contingent of british troops to suppress the rebellion. dutch banks at this time still held much of the global ‘s capital. Government-sponsored banks owned up to 40 % of Great Britain ‘s national debt and there were close connections to the House of Stuart. The stadholder had supported british policies after the american english Revolution. This austere military response overwhelmed the Patriots and put the stadholder hard spinal column in control. A humble unpaid prussian united states army was billeted in the Netherlands and supported themselves by looting and extortion. The exercitiegenootschappen continued urging citizens to resist the government. They distributed pamphlets, formed “ Patriot Clubs ” and held public demonstrations. The government responded by pillaging those towns where opposition continued. Five leaders were sentenced to death ( but fled first base ). Lynchings besides occurred. For a while, no one dared appear in public without an orange cockade to show their patronize for Orangism. many Patriots, possibly around 40,000 in all, fled to Brabant, France ( specially Dunkirk and St. Omer ) and elsewhere. however, before retentive the french became involved in dutch politics and the tide turned .

Batavian Republic ( 1795–1806 ) [edit ]

Liberty corner erected in Dam Square in Amsterdam, 1795 by H. Numan. The french Revolution was democratic, and numerous metro clubs were promoting it when in January 1795 the french army invaded. The underground rose up, overthrew the municipal and provincial governments, and proclaimed the Batavian Republic ( dutch : Bataafse Republiek ) in Amsterdam. Stadtholder William V fled to England and the States General dissolved itself. The modern government was virtually a puppet of France. [ 132 ] The Batavian Republic enjoyed widespread support and sent soldiers to fight in the french armies. The 1799 Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland was repulsed by Batavian–French forces. Nevertheless, Napoleon replaced it because the regimen of Grand Pensionary Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck ( 1805–1806 ) was insufficiently docile. [ 133 ] The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary express. The 1798 constitution had a truly democratic fictional character, though a coup d’etat d’état of 1801 put an authoritarian regimen in baron. ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period. meanwhile, the expatriate stadholder handed over the dutch colonies in “ safekeeping ” to Great Britain and ordered the colonial governors to comply. This permanently ended the colonial empire in Guyana, Ceylon and the Cape Colony. The Dutch East Indies was returned to the Netherlands under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 .

Kingdom of Holland to William I ( 1806–1815 ) [edit ]

administrative divisions of the First French Empire in 1812, illustrating the incorporation of the Netherlands and its internal reorganization. In 1806 Napoleon restyled the Netherlands ( along with a small character of what is nowadays Germany ) into the Kingdom of Holland, putting his brother Louis Bonaparte ( 1778–1846 ), on the throne. The new king was unpopular, but he was will to cross his brother for the benefit of his new kingdom. Napoleon forced his abdication in 1810 and incorporated the Netherlands directly into the french empire, imposing economic controls and conscription of all young men as soldiers. When the french retreated from the northerly provinces in 1813, a Triumvirate took over at the helm of a probationary government. Although most members of the probationary government had been among the men who had driven out William V 18 years earlier, the leaders of the probationary government knew that any new regimen would have to be headed by his son, William Frederick. They besides knew that it would be better in the long condition if the dutch people themselves installed the prince, quite than have him imposed on the country by the anti-French alliance. accordingly, the Triumvirate called William Frederick back on 30 November and offered him the crown. He refused, but alternatively proclaimed himself “ ancestral sovereign prince “ on 6 December. The Great Powers had secretly agreed to merge the northerly Netherlands with the more populate austrian Netherlands and the smaller Prince-Bishopric of Liège into a one built-in monarchy. Having a stronger country on France ‘s northern molding was considered ( particularly by Tsar Alexander ) to be an significant separate of the scheme to keep France ‘s baron in hindrance. In 1814, William Frederick gained reign over the austrian Netherlands and Liège a well. Thus, William Frederick had fulfilled his family ‘s three-century pursuit to unite the moo Countries under a single rule. On 15 March 1815 ; with the boost of the powers gathered at the Congress of Vienna, William Frederick raised the Netherlands to the status of a kingdom and proclaimed himself King William I. This was made official later in 1815, when the low Countries were formally recognized as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The crown was made a familial office of the House of Orange-Nassau .

United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( 1815–1839 ) [edit ]

Landing of the future king William I at Scheveningen on 30 November 1813 by Johan Willem Heyting (1915–1995). by Johan Willem Heyting ( 1915–1995 ). William I became king and besides became the familial Grand Duke of Luxembourg, that was separate of the Netherlands but at the same time depart of the german Confederation. The newly created state had two capitals : Amsterdam and Brussels. The new nation had two equal parts. The north ( Netherlands proper ) had 2 million people. They spoke chiefly dutch but were divided scrupulously between a Protestant majority and a bombastic Catholic minority. The south ( which would be known as “ Belgium ” after 1830 ) had a population of 3.4 million people. about all were Catholic, but it was divided between French-speaking Walloons and Dutch-speaking Flemings. The upper and in-between classes in the confederacy were by and large French-speaking. About 60,000 Belgians were eligible to vote, compared to about 80,000 Dutchmen. formally Amsterdam was the capital, but in a compromise the government met alternately in Brussels and The Hague. Adolphe Quetelet ( 1796–1874 ), the great belgian statistician, calculated that the newly nation was importantly better off than early states. Mortality was depleted, the food provide was good, education was well, public awareness was high gear and the charity rate was the highest in the universe. The best years were in the mid-1820s. The quality of schooling was blue, however. According to Schama, about 1800 the local school teacher was the “ humiliate aide of the local priest. Despised by his co-villagers and forced to subsist on the gleanings of the peasants, he combined drumming the catechism into the heads of his disobedient charges with the duties of winding the town clock, ringing the church bells or digging its graves. His chief use to the residential district was to keep its boys out of mischief when there was no parturiency for them in the fields, or setting the destitute orphans of the town to the ‘useful arts ‘ of picking tow or spinning petroleum flax. As one would expect, standards in such an occupation were blue. ” [ 136 ] But in 1806 the dutch, led by Adriaan van den Ende, energetically set out to modernise education, focusing on a new organization for advance train of teachers with an elaborate system of inspectors, training courses, teacher examinations and teaching societies. By 1826, although much smaller than France, the Dutch national government was spending 12 times more than Paris on department of education .

Constitutional monarchy [edit ]

William I, who reigned from 1815 to 1840, had big constitutional ability. An initiate tyrant, he accepted the modernize transformations of the previous 25 years, including equality of all before the law. however, he resurrected the estates as a political class and elevated a big number of people to the nobility. Voting rights were still limited, and only the nobility were eligible for seats in the upper house. The old provinces were reestablished in name entirely. The government was now basically unitary, and all authority flowed from the center. William I was a Calvinist and unsympathetic to the religious culture and practices of the Catholic majority. He promulgated the “ fundamental police of Holland ”, with some modifications. This wholly overthrew the old order of things in the southerly Netherlands : it abolished the privileges of the Catholic Church, and guaranteed peer security to every religious religious doctrine and the enjoyment of the same civil and political rights to every subject of the king. It reflected the heart of the french Revolution and in then doing did not please the Catholic bishops in the south, who had detested the Revolution. [ 138 ] William I actively promoted economic modernization. The first 15 years of the Kingdom showed advancement and prosperity, as industrialization proceeded quickly in the south, where the Industrial Revolution allowed entrepreneurs and labor to combine in a modern fabric diligence, powered by local anesthetic char mines. There was little industry in the northern provinces, but most overseas colonies were restored, and highly profitable trade resumed after a 25-year suspension. economic liberalism combined with moderate monarchal dictatorship accelerated the adaptation of the Netherlands to the new conditions of the nineteenth century. The country prospered until a crisis get up in relations with the southern provinces .

Belgium breaks away [edit ]

William was determined to create a connect people, even though the north and south had drifted far apart in the past three centuries. Protestants were the largest denomination in the North ( population 2 million ), but formed a one-fourth of the population in the overwhelmingly Catholic South ( population 3.5 million ). Nevertheless, Protestants dominated William ‘s government and united states army. The Catholics did not consider themselves an integral function of the United Netherlands, preferring rather to identify with medieval dutch culture. other factors that contributed to this feeling were economic ( the South was industrialising, the North had always been a merchants ‘ nation ) and linguistic ( french was spoken in Wallonia and a big character of the middle class in Flemish cities ). [ citation needed ] After having been prevailing for centuries, the French-speaking elite in the southern Netherlands immediately felt like second-class citizens. In the Catholic South, [ 139 ] William ‘s policies were unpopular. The french-speaking Walloons strenuously rejected his attempt to make Dutch the cosmopolitan lyric of politics, while the population of Flanders was divided. Flemings in the south spoke a dutch dialect ( “ Flemish ” ) and welcomed the boost of dutch with a revival of literature and democratic culture. early Flemings, notably the educated middle class, preferred to speak French. Although Catholics possessed legal equality, they resented their hyponymy to a government that was basically Protestant in liveliness and membership after having been the submit church for centuries in the south. few Catholics held high function in state or army. furthermore, political liberals in the south complained about the king ‘s authoritarian methods. All southerners complained of underrepresentation in the home legislature. Although the south was industrializing and was more booming than the north the accumulate grievances allowed the multiple opposition forces to coalesce .
Fighting between belgian rebels and the dutch military expedition in Brussels in September 1830 The outbreak of revolution in France in 1830 was a sign for military action, at first base on behalf of autonomy for Belgium, as the southerly provinces were now called, and later on behalf of sum independence. William dithered and his halfhearted efforts to reconquer Belgium were thwarted both by the efforts of the Belgians themselves and by the diplomatic opposition of the great powers. At the London Conference of 1830, the foreman powers of Europe ordered ( in November 1830 ) an armistice between the Dutch and the Belgians. The first draft for a treaty of interval of Belgium and the Netherlands was rejected by the Belgians. A moment enlist ( June 1831 ) was rejected by William I, who resumed hostilities. Franco-British intervention forced William to withdraw Dutch forces from Belgium late in 1831, and in 1833 an armistice of indefinite duration was concluded. Belgium was effectively independent but William ‘s attempts to recover Luxembourg and Limburg led to renewed tension. The London Conference of 1838–1839 prepared the final Dutch-Belgian separation treaty of 1839. It divided Luxembourg and Limburg between the Dutch and belgian crowns. The Kingdom of the Netherlands thereafter was made up of the 11 northerly provinces. [ 140 ]

democratic and Industrial Development ( 1840–1900 ) [edit ]

The Netherlands did not industrialize a quickly as Belgium after 1830, but it was comfortable adequate. Griffiths argues that certain government policies facilitated the emergence of a national economy in the nineteenth century. They included the abolition of inner tariffs and guilds, a unite neologism system, modern methods of tax collection, standardized weights and measures, and the build of many roads, canals, and railroads. however, compared to Belgium, which was leading in industrialization on the continent, the Netherlands moved slowly. possible explanations for this deviation are the higher costs due to geography and high wages, and the vehemence of entrepreneurs on deal rather than diligence. [ 141 ] For example, in the Dutch coastal provinces agricultural productivity was relatively high. Hence, industrial growth arrived relatively former – after 1860 – because incentives to move to labor-intensive diligence were quite weak. [ 142 ] however, the provinces of North Brabant and Overijssel did industrialize, and they became the most economically advanced areas of the state. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] As in the pillow of Europe, the nineteenth hundred saw the gradual transformation of the Netherlands into a modern middle-class industrial company. The count of people employed in department of agriculture decreased, while the country made a potent effort to revive its stake in the highly competitive shipping and barter business. The Netherlands lagged behind Belgium until the late nineteenth hundred in industrialization, and caught up around 1920. major industries included textiles and ( subsequently ) the great Philips industrial conglomerate. Rotterdam became a major transport and fabrication concentrate. [ 145 ] Poverty lento declined as begging largely disappeared along with steadily improving working conditions for the population .

1848 Constitutional reform and liberalism [edit ]

Peasant woman, seated, with a white hood, painted in Nuenen in December 1884 by , painted in Nuenen in December 1884 by Vincent avant-garde Gogh ( 1853–1890 ). Born in Groot-Zundert, van Gogh was a dutch postimpressionist painter whose work, celebrated for its approximate beauty, aroused honesty and bluff color, had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century artwork In 1840 William I abdicated in prefer of his son, William II, who attempted to carry on the policies of his founder in the grimace of a potent liberal motion. In 1848 unrest broke out all over Europe. Although there were no major events in the Netherlands, these extraneous developments persuaded King William II to agree to free and democratic reform. That like year Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, a big big, was asked by the king to draft a united states constitution that would turn the Netherlands into a constitutional monarchy. The new constitution was proclaimed on 3 November 1848. It hard limited the king ‘s powers ( making the politics accountable only to an elected fantan ), and it protected civil liberties. The new liberal constitution, which put the government under the control of the States General, was accepted by the legislature in 1848. The relationship between monarch, government and parliament has remained basically unaltered ever since. William II was succeeded by William III in 1849. The new baron reluctantly chose Thorbecke to head the modern government, which introduced several broad measures, notably the extension of right to vote. however, Thorbecke ‘s government soon fell, when Protestants rioted against the Vatican ‘s reestablishment of the Catholic bishopry, in abeyance since the sixteenth century. A conservative government was formed, but it did not undo the big measures, and the Catholics were finally given equality after two centuries of subordination. Dutch political history from the middle of the nineteenth century until the First World War was basically one of the extension of liberal reforms in politics, the reorganization and modernization of the dutch economy, and the rise of trade wind unionism and socialism as wage-earning movements independent of traditional liberalism. The emergence in prosperity was enormous, as real per caput gross national product soared from 106 guilders in 1804 to 403 in 1913 .

religion and pillarisation [edit ]

religion was a contentious issue with reprise struggles over the relations of church and state in the field of education. In 1816, the government took full control of the Dutch Reformed Church ( Nederlands Hervormde Kerk ). In 1857, all religious instruction was ended in populace schools, but the respective churches set up their own schools, and even universities. dissident members broke aside from the Dutch Reformed Church in the secession of 1834. They were harassed by the politics under an burdensome Napoleonic jurisprudence prohibiting gatherings of more than 20 members without a license. After the harassment ended in the 1850s, a number of these dissidents finally created the Christian Reformed Church in 1869 ; thousands migrated to Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa in the United States. By 1900, the dissidents represented about 10 % of the population, compared to 45 % of the population who were in the dutch Reformed Church, which continued to be the only church to receive state money. [ 147 ] At mid-century, most Dutch belonged either to the Dutch Reformed Church or dissenter groups that separated from it ( around 55 % ), or the Roman Catholic Church ( 35 % to 40 % ), together with smaller Protestant ( for exercise, Lutheran ) and jewish groups. A boastfully and potent sector of nominal Protestants were in fact secular liberals seeking to minimize religious charm. In reaction a novel alliance developed with Catholics and devout Calvinists joining against profane liberals. The Catholics, who had been broadly allied with the liberals in earlier decades, turned against them on the issue of state back, which the liberals insisted should be granted only to public schools, and joined with Protestant political parties in demanding equal express support to schools maintained by religious groups. [ 148 ] The Netherlands remained one of the most tolerant countries in Europe towards religious belief, although conservative Protestants objected to the liberalization of the Dutch Reformed Church during the nineteenth century and front opposition from the politics when they tried to establish separate communities ( Catholics and other non-Protestants were left unmolested by Dutch authorities ). Some moved to the United States as a consequence, but as the century drew to a close, religious persecution had wholly ceased .
nl] Street in Amsterdam in 1891 ( Vijzelstraat looking towards Muntplein ). Dutch sociable and political life became divided by fairly clear-cut inner borders that were emerging as the society pillarized into three separate parts based on religion. The economy was not affected. One of the people most responsible for designing pillarization was Abraham Kuyper ( 1837–1920 ), a leading politician, neo-Calvinist theologian, and journalist. Kuyper established orthodox Calvinist organizations, and besides provided a theoretical framework by developing such concepts as “ sphere-sovereignty ” that celebrated Dutch company as a club of organized minorities. Verzuiling ( “ pillarization ” or “ pluralism ” ) after 1850 became the solution to the danger of internal conflict. Everyone was part of one ( and only one ) column ( zuil ) based chiefly on religion ( Protestant, Catholic, secular ). The secular pillar finally split into a socialist/working class column and a liberal ( pro-business ) secular column. Each column built a full put of its own social organizations, including churches ( for the religious pillars ), political parties, schools, universities, [ 149 ] undertaking unions, sport clubs, boy lookout unions and other youth clubs, and newspapers. The members of different zuilen lived in close proximity in cities and villages, spoke the same linguistic process, and did business with one another, but rarely interacted informally and rarely intermarry. [ 150 ] In politics Kuyper formed the Anti-Revolutionary Party ( ARP ) in 1879, and headed it until 1905. Pillarization was officially recognized in the peace of 1917, whereby socialists and liberals achieved their finish of universal male right to vote and the religious parties were guaranteed adequate support of all schools. In 1930 radio was organized so that each column had full master of its own network. When television began in the late 1940s the pillars divided up time equally on the one post. In politics and civic affairs leaders of the pillar organizations cooperated and they acknowledged the right of the other pillars, so populace life generally ran smoothly. [ 152 ] [ 153 ]

Flourishing of art, polish and skill [edit ]

The late nineteenth hundred saw a cultural revival. The Hague School brought a revival of realist painting, 1860–1890. The world-famous Dutch painter was Vincent van Gogh, but he spent most of his career in France. [ 154 ] Literature, music, architecture and skill besides flourished. A congressman drawing card of skill was Johannes Diderik van five hundred Waals ( 1837–1923 ), a running class young who taught himself physics, earned a PhD at the nation ‘s lead school Leiden University, and in 1910 won the Nobel Prize for his discoveries in thermodynamics. Hendrik Lorentz ( 1853–1928 ) and his student Pieter Zeeman ( 1865–1943 ) shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in physics. other celebrated scientists included biologist Hugo de Vries ( 1848–1935 ), who rediscovered mendelian genetics. [ 155 ]

1900 to 1940 [edit ]

In 1890, William III died after a long reign and was succeeded by his young daughter, Queen Wilhelmina ( 1880–1962 ). She would rule the Netherlands for 58 years. On her accession to the throne, the personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg ended because Luxembourg jurisprudence excluded women from rule. Her outback cousin Adolphe became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. This was a time of far increase and colonial growth, but it was marked by the difficulties of World War I ( in which the Netherlands was neutral ) and the Great Depression. The Dutch population grew quickly in the twentieth century, as end rates fell, more lands were opened up, and industrialization created urban jobs. [ 156 ] Between 1900 and 1950 the population doubled from 5.1 to 10 million people. [ 157 ]

colonial stress [edit ]

The Dutch empire comprised the Dutch East Indies ( Indonesia ), angstrom well as Surinam in South America and some minor possessions. It was smaller in 1945 than in 1815 because the Netherlands was the merely colonial ability that did not expand into Africa or anywhere else. The empire was run from Batavia ( in Java ), where the governor and his technical experts had about complete authority with small supervision from The Hague. consecutive governors improved their bureaucratic and military controls, and allowed very short voice to the locals until the 1920s. [ 158 ] The colony brought economic opportunity to the mother country and there was little refer at the time about it. One exception came in 1860 when Eduard Dekker, under the pen name “ Multatuli “ wrote the novel Max Havelaar: Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company, one of the most luminary books in the history of dutch literature. He criticized the exploitation of the colony and adenine well had harsh words about the autochthonal princes who collaborated with the governor. The book helped inspire the indonesian independence movement in the mid-20th century angstrom well as the “ Fair trade “ campaign for coffee bean at the goal of the century. [ 159 ] The military forces in the Dutch East Indies were controlled by the governor and were not part of the regular Dutch united states army. As the function shows, the Dutch slowly expanded their holdings from their base in Java to include all of modern Indonesia by 1920. Most islands were not a problem but there was a long, dearly-won campaign against the Achin ( Aceh ) state in northern Sumatra. The Netherlands had not fought a major military campaign since the 1760s, and the forte of its armed forces had gradually dwindled. The Dutch decided not to ally themselves with anyone, and kept out of all European wars, specially the first World War that swirled about it. [ 160 ]

neutrality during the First World War [edit ]

The german war design ( the Schlieffen Plan ) of 1905 was modified in 1908 to invade Belgium on the way to Paris but not the Netherlands. It supplied many essential bleak materials to Germany such as rubber, tin, quinine, anoint and food. The british used its blockade to limit supplies that the Dutch could pass on. [ 160 ] There were other factors that made it expedient for both the Allies and the Central Powers for the Netherlands to remain neutral. The Netherlands controlled the mouths of the Scheldt, the Rhine and the Meuse rivers. Germany had an sake in the Rhine since it ran through the industrial areas of the Ruhr and connected it with the Dutch port of Rotterdam. Britain had an interest in the Scheldt and the Meuse flowed from France. All countries had an interest in keeping the others out of the Netherlands so that no one ‘s interests could be taken away or be changed. If one nation were to have invaded the Netherlands, another would surely have counterattacked to defend their own interest in the rivers. It was excessively boastfully a risk for any of the belligerent nations and none wanted to risk fighting on another battlefront. [ 160 ]
The Afsluitdijk, the butch closing off the Zuiderzee, was constructed between 1927 and 1933. Public works projects like this were one manner to deal with high unemployment during the Great Depression The Dutch were affected by the war, troops were mobilized and conscription was introduced in the face of harsh criticism from enemy parties. In 1918, mutinies broke out in the military. Food shortages were extensive, due to the control the belligerents exercised over the Dutch. Each wanted their parcel of Dutch grow. As a result, the price of potatoes rose precipitously because Britain had demanded so much from the Dutch. Food riots even broke out in the country. [ 160 ] A boastful problem was smuggling. When Germany had conquered Belgium, the Allies saw it as foe territory and stopped exporting to Belgium. Food became scarce for the belgian people, since the Germans seized all food. This gave the Dutch the opportunity to start to smuggle. This, however, caused great problems in the Netherlands, including ostentation and promote food shortages. The Allies demanded that the Dutch stop the smuggling, and the government took measures to remain neutral. The government placed many cities under ‘state of siege ‘. On 8 January 1916, a 5-kilometre ( 3.1 mi ) partition was created by the government along the margin. In that zone, goods could be moved on independent roads lone with a allow. [ 160 ] german authorities in Belgium had an electrify wall erected all along the Belgian–Dutch edge that caused many refugees from Belgium to lose their lives. The fence was guarded by older german Landsturm soldiers. [ 161 ]

Interwar period [edit ]

Although both houses of the Dutch Parliament were elected by the people, alone men with gamey incomes were eligible to vote until 1917, when atmospheric pressure from socialist movements resulted in elections in which all men careless of income, were entitled to vote. In 1919, women besides obtained the right to vote for the first clock in history. The cosmopolitan Great Depression which began after the disruptive events of Black Tuesday in 1929, that continued into the early-1930s had crippling effects on the dutch economy ; lasting longer than in most other european countries. The long duration of the Great Depression in the Netherlands is much explained by the very stern fiscal policy of the dutch government at the time, and its decision to adhere to the gold standard for much longer than most of its trade partners. The bang-up Depression led to high unemployment and widespread poverty, adenine well as increasing social unrest. The ascend of Nazism in Germany did not go unnoticed in the Netherlands, and there was growing concern at the hypothesis of armed conflict, but most dutch people expected that Germany would again respect Dutch neutrality. There were separate fascist and national socialist movements in the 1930s. Dutch Fascists admired Mussolini ‘s Italy and called for a traditional bodied political orientation. The membership was small, elitist and ineffective. The pro-Nazi movement, however, won support from Berlin and attempted to build a bulk base by 1935. It failed because most dutch rejected its racial ideology and calls for violence. [ 162 ] The refutation budget was not increased until Germany remilitarised the Rhineland in 1936. The budget was further increased in 1938 ( after the annexation of Austria and occupation of the Czech Sudetenland ). The colonial government besides increased its military budget because of increasing tensions with Japan. The Dutch did not mobilise their armed forces until shortly before France and the UK declared war on Germany in September 1939 after the invasion of Poland. disinterest was placid the official policy, but the dutch government tried to buy new arms for their badly equipped forces ; however, a considerable share of ordered weapons never arrived .

The second gear World War ( 1939–1945 ) [edit ]

nazi invasion and occupation [edit ]

Rotterdam was destroyed by german bombers on 14 May 1940. 814 people died in the Rotterdam Blitz At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the Netherlands once again declared its neutrality. however, on 10 May 1940, Nazi Germany launched an attack on the Netherlands and Belgium and promptly overran most of the two countries. Fighting against the dutch united states army proved to be more of a load than anticipate ; the northern attack was stopped dead, the one in the middle came to a grinding stem near the Grebbeberg and many airborne rape troops were killed and taken prisoner in the west of the country. only in the south were defences broken, but the one passage over the River Maas at Rotterdam was held by the Dutch. By 14 May, fighting in many locations had ceased and the german army could make little or no headroom, so the Luftwaffe bombed Rotterdam, the second-largest city of the Netherlands, killing about 900 people, destroying most of the inner city and leaving 78,000 people dispossessed. Following the bombard and german threats of the like treatment for Utrecht, the Netherlands capitulated on 15 May, except for the province of Zeeland where french and French-Moroccan troops stood side by side with the dutch united states army. still, the Dutch Royal Family along with some armed forces fled to the United Kingdom. Some members of the Dutch Royal Family finally moved to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada until the Netherlands was liberated five years late. Princess Margriet was born in Canada, during the period the family spent in exile. resentment of the Germans grew as the occupation became harsh, prompting many Dutch in the latter years of the war to join the resistor. But collaboration was not rare either ; many thousands of young Dutch males volunteered for combat service on the russian Front with the Waffen-SS and many companies worked for the german occupiers .

Holocaust in the Netherlands [edit ]

About 140,000 Jews lived in the Netherlands at the beginning of the war. persecution of Dutch Jews started soon after the occupation. At the end of the war, 40,000 Jews were still alive. Of the 100,000 Jews who did not go into hiding, about 1,000 survived the war. One celebrated victim of the Holocaust was Anne Frank, who gained cosmopolitan fame when her diary, written while living in hiding from the Nazis in the achterhuis ( “ rear annex ” ) of the firm, was found and published posthumously by her father, Otto Frank ; who was the alone member of the family to survive the Holocaust .

The war in the Dutch East Indies [edit ]

On 8 December 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Netherlands declared war on Japan. [ 163 ] The dutch government-in-exile in London had for long been working with the UK & US governments to cut off oil supplies to Japan. japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies on 11 January 1942. The Dutch surrendered on 8 March after japanese troops landed on Java. dutch citizens and everybody with Dutch ancestry, the alleged “ Indo ‘s “ were captured and put to work in labor camps or interned. As in the Netherlands, many Dutch ships, planes and military personnel managed to reach base hit, in this case Australia ; from where they were able to fight again .

false hopes, the Hunger Winter and Liberation [edit ]

In Europe, after the Allies landed in Normandy in June 1944, advancement was slow until the Battle of Normandy ended in August 1944. german resistance collapsed in Western Europe and the allied armies advanced cursorily towards the Dutch border. The first canadian Army and the second british Army conducted operations on Dutch territory from September onwards. On 17 September, a boldness operation, Operation Market Garden ; was executed with the goal of capturing bridges across three major rivers in the southerly Netherlands. Despite despairing fight by American, British and polish forces, the bridge at Arnhem, across the Neder Rijn, could not be captured. Areas south of the Rhine river were liberated in the period September–December 1944, including the state of Zeeland, which was liberated in October and November in the Battle of the Scheldt. This opened Antwerp to allied shipping. The first canadian Army held a electrostatic line along the Meuse ( dutch : Maas ) from December 1944 through February 1945. The rest of the country remained invade until the spring of 1945. In the face of Dutch defiance, the Nazis intentionally cut off food supplies resulting in near-starvation in the cities during the Hongerwinter ( Hunger winter ) of 1944–1945. soup kitchens were set up but many vulnerable people died. [ 164 ] A few days before the Allied victory, the Germans allowed hand brake shipments of food .
The First canadian Army launched Operation Veritable in early-February, cracking the Siegfried Line and reaching the banks of the Rhine in early-March. In the final weeks of the war in Europe, the First canadian Army was charged with clearing the Netherlands of german forces. The Liberation of Arnhem began on 12 April 1945 and proceeded to plan, as the three infantry brigades of the 49th Division leapfrogged each other through the city. Within four days Arnhem, immediately a ruined city, was wholly under Allied control. [ 165 ] The Canadians then immediately advanced further into the country, encountering and defeating a german counterattack at Otterlo and Dutch SS resistance at Ede. On 27 April a impermanent armistice came into effect, allowing the distribution of food help to the starving Dutch civilians in areas under german control ( Operation Manna ). On 5 May 1945, Generaloberst Johannes Blaskowitz agreed to the unconditional surrender of all german forces in the Netherlands, signing the giving up to canadian Lieutenant-General Charles Foulkes at Wageningen. [ 166 ] ( The Fifth of May is now celebrated annually in the Netherlands as Liberation Day. ) Three days late Germany unconditionally surrendered, bringing the war in Europe to an end. After the euphoria and settle of scores had ended, the Dutch were a traumatize people with a destroy economy, a shatter infrastructure and several destroyed cities including Rotterdam, Nijmegen, Arnhem and character of The Hague .

Post-war events [edit ]

After the war, there were reprisals against those who had collaborated with the Nazis. Artur Seyss-Inquart, Nazi Commissioner of the Netherlands, was tried at Nüremberg. In the early on post-war years, the Netherlands made continued attempts to expand its territory by annexing neighbor german territory. The larger annexation plans were continuously rejected by the United States, but the London league of 1949 permitted the Netherlands to perform a smaller scale annexation. Most of the annex territory was returned to Germany on 1 August 1963 after Germany paid the Netherlands 280 million german marks. [ 167 ] Operation Black Tulip was a plan in 1945 by dutch Minister of Justice Kolfschoten to evict all Germans from the Netherlands. The operation lasted from 1946 to 1948 and in the end 3,691 Germans ( 15 % of Germans house physician in the Netherlands ) were deported. [ 168 ] The operation started on 10 September 1946 in Amsterdam, where Germans and their families were taken from their homes in the middle of the night and given one hour to collect 50 kilogram of baggage. They were allowed to take 100 guilders. The rest of their possessions went to the state. They were taken to concentration camps near the german surround, the biggest of which was Mariënbosch concentration clique near Nijmegen. [ 169 ]

Prosperity and european Unity ( 1945–present ) [edit ]

The post-war years were a time of hardship, shortages and natural calamity. This was followed by large-scale public works programmes, economic recovery, european integration and the gradual introduction of a benefit state. immediately after the war, ration was imposed on many goods, including : cigarettes, textiles, washing gunpowder and coffee. tied traditional wooden shoes were rationed. There was severe house shortages in the Netherlands as a result of the war. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] In the 1950s, there was batch emigration, particularly to Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population concentration prompted some 500,000 dutch people to leave the country after the war. [ 172 ] The Netherlands failed to hold the Dutch East Indies, as Indonesia became autonomous and 300,000 dutch inhabitants ( and their indonesian allies ) left the islands. Post-war politics saw shifting coalition governments. The 1946 Parliamentary elections saw the Catholic People ‘s Party ( KVP ) emerge as the largest party, barely ahead of the socialistic Labour party ( PvdA ). Louis J. M. Beel formed a newly alliance cabinet. The United States began providing economic aid as part of the Marshall Plan in 1948 that injected valuable funds into the economy, foster modernization of business, and encouraged economic cooperation. [ 173 ] The 1948 elections led to a new coalescence led by Labor ‘s Willem Drees. He led four consecutive cabinets Drees I, Drees II, Drees III and Drees IV until 1958. His tenure in function saw four major political developments : the injury of decolonization, economic reconstruction, the administration of the Dutch wellbeing state, and external integration and co-operation, including the formation of Benelux, the OEEC, NATO, the ECSC, and the EEC .

Baby boom and economic reconstruction [edit ]

Population growth 1900–2000 Despite the socio-economic problems, this was a period of optimism for many. A baby boom followed the war, as youthful Dutch couples started the families they could not previously ascribable to the war. They had lived through the hardships of the Great Depression and the hell of war. They wanted to start afresh and live better lives without the poverty, starvation, terror, and extreme frugality they knew so well. They had little taste for a strictly imposed rule-oriented traditional organization with its rigid hierarchies, acute pillarised boundaries and rigorously orthodox religious doctrines. The transformation of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care ( 1946 ), by american baby doctor Benjamin Spock was a best-seller. His vision of class life as companionate, permissive, enjoyable and even as being fun took prevail, and seemed the best way to achieve syndicate happiness in a dawn age of freedom and prosperity. [ 174 ] Wages were kept low and the recovery of consumption to pre-war levels was delayed to permit rapid rebuild of the infrastructure. In the years after the war, unemployment fell and the economy grew at an amaze pace, despite the high birth rate. The shatter infrastructure and destroy cities were rebuilt. A key contribution to the recovery in the post-war Netherlands came from the Marshall Plan, which provided the country with funds, goods, raw materials and grow. [ 175 ] The Dutch became internationally active again. Dutch corporations, particularly Royal Dutch Shell and Philips, became internationally outstanding. Businesspeople, scientists, engineers and artists from the Netherlands made authoritative external contributions. For example, Dutch economists, specially Jan Tinbergen ( 1903–1994 ), Tjalling Koopmans ( 1910–1985 ) and Henri Theil ( 1924–2000 ), made major contributions to the mathematical and statistical methodology known as econometrics. [ 176 ] Across Western Europe, the period from 1973 to 1981 marked the goal of the booming economy of the 1960s. The Netherlands besides experienced years of veto increase after that. unemployment increased steadily, causing rapid growth in social-security expenditures. inflation reached double digits ; government surpluses disappeared. On the positive side, rich natural accelerator resources were developed, providing a current account trade excess during most of the period. public deficits were high. [ 177 ] According to the long-run economic psychoanalysis of Horlings and Smits, the major gains in the dutch economy were concentrated between 1870–1930 and between 1950 and 1970. Rates were much lower in 1930–1945 and after 1987. [ 178 ]

Flood manipulate [edit ]

The last major flood in the Netherlands took place in early-February 1953, when a huge storm caused the collapse of respective dikes in the southwest of the Netherlands. More than 1,800 people drowned in the ensuing flood. The dutch government subsequently decided on a large-scale course of study of public works ( the “ Delta Works “ ) to protect the state against future floods. The project took more than thirty years to complete. The Oosterscheldedam, an boost sea storm barrier, became operational in 1986. The national Delta program continues to manage these works for the government under an independent Commissioner, with the calculate of making the Netherlands climate-proof and water-resilient by 2050. [ 179 ]

europeanization, Americanisation and internationalization [edit ]

The european Coal and Steel Community ( ECSC ), was founded in 1951 by the six founding members : Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg ( the Benelux countries ) and West Germany, France and Italy. Its aim was to pool the steel and coal resources of the member states, and to support the economies of the participating countries. As a side effect, the ECSC helped defuse tensions between countries which had recently been fighting each other during the war. In fourth dimension, this economic fusion grew, adding members and broadening in oscilloscope, to become the european Economic Community, and late the European Union ( EU ) .
Protest in The Hague against the nuclear arms race between the U.S./NATO and the Warsaw Pact, 1983 The United States started to have more influence. After the war, higher education changed from a german mannequin to more of an American-influenced exemplar. [ 180 ] [ dubious – discuss ] american influences had been small in the interwar era, and during the war, the Nazis had emphasised the dangers of a “ degrade ” american culture as represented by jazz. however, the dutch became more attract to the United States during the post-war era, possibly partially because of antipathy towards the Nazis [ 181 ] but surely because of american films and consumer goods. The Marshall Plan besides introduced the Dutch to American management practices. [ dubious – discuss ] NATO brought in american military doctrine and engineering. [ 182 ] Intellectuals, artists and the political left, however, remained more reserved about the Americans. [ 183 ] According to Rob Kroes, the anti-Americanism in the Netherlands was ambiguous : american english culture was both accept and criticised at the same time. [ 184 ] The Netherlands is a establish member of the EU, NATO, OECD and WTO. together with Belgium and Luxembourg it forms the Benelux economic union. The country is host to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and five international courts : the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the special Tribunal for Lebanon. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EU ‘s criminal intelligence agency Europol and judicial co-operation representation Eurojust. This has led to the city being dubbed “ the populace ‘s legal capital ”. [ 185 ]

decolonization and multiculturalism [edit ]

Castel Felice with ” arrival of the vesselwith “ Indos “ ( Dutch-Indonesian Eurasians ) on the Lloydkade in Rotterdam, 20 May 1958. The Dutch East Indies had long been a valuable resource to the Netherlands, generating about 14 % of the Dutch national income in the 1930s, and was home to thousands of dutch people and officials, businessmen and missionaries. [ 186 ] By the inaugural half of the twentieth century, raw organisations and leadership had developed in the Dutch East Indies. Under its ethical policy, the politics had helped create an educate indonesian elect. These profound changes constituted the “ indonesian National Revival “. Increased political activism and japanese occupation undermining Dutch rule culminated in nationalists proclaiming independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the surrender of Japan. [ 187 ] The Dutch did not plan to let go, for they would be left as merely a minor second-class might ranking with Denmark possibly. however, the Netherlands was much excessively weak to reconquer Indonesia. The Japanese had imprisoned all the dutch residents, and turned the islands over to a native politics, which was wide democratic. The british military arrived to disarm the Japanese. The Dutch last returned and attempted to eradicate the indonesian National Revolution with coerce, ( sometimes brutal in nature ). [ 188 ] Hundreds of thousands of Indonesians supported the dutch position ; when Independence finally arrived, most of them were relocated to the Netherlands. The UK mediated a compromise signed in March 1947 whereby de facto control of the raw Indonesian Republic was acknowledged over Java, Maduro and Sumatra, while acknowledging Dutch see over the numerous smaller and far less crucial islands. purportedly there would be a federate indonesian country and a union with the Netherlands, but that never happened. The Indonesians wanted complete transfer of office, and the Dutch refused. By 1946, the United States was financing the Dutch in Indonesia, and was able to exert blackmail on The Hague. Increasing international pressure—including american hints about cutting off military funds—forced the Netherlands to withdraw. A critical episode was the success of the Indonesian Republic in crushing a Communist disgust. Washington now realised that Indonesia was part of the Cold War competitiveness against communism, and the indonesian government was a necessary ally—and that the dutch tactics were counterproductive and chaotic, and could lone provide help to Communist insurgencies. [ 189 ] The Netherlands formally recognised indonesian independence on 27 December 1949. public opinion blamed Washington for the Dutch colonial failure. [ 190 ] alone Irian, the western half of New Guinea remained under Dutch operate as Netherlands New Guinea until 1961, when the Netherlands transferred sovereignty of this area to Indonesia. During and after the indonesian National Revolution, over 350,000 people, left Indonesia for the Netherlands. They included 250,000 Europeans and “ Indos “ ( Dutch-Indonesian Eurasians ), Along with 100,000 military conscripts, and 12,000 South Moluccans settled in the Netherlands. similarly after independence in 1975, Surinam sent about 115,000 Surinamese. [ 191 ] This emigration occurred in five clear-cut waves over a menstruation of twenty dollar bill years. It included Indos ( many of whom spent the war years in japanese concentration camps ), early South Moluccan soldiers and their families, “ New-Guinea issue ” Dutch citizens, Dutch citizens from Netherlands New Guinea ( including Papuan civil servants and their families ), and other Indos who had remained behind but late regretted their decision to take out indonesian citizenship. [ 192 ] [ 193 ] The Indos of indonesian descent ( nowadays numbering around 680,000 ) is the largest heathen minority group in the Netherlands. They are integrated into Dutch society, but they have besides retained many aspects of their culture and have added a discrete indonesian flavor to the Netherlands. [ 194 ] Although it was primitively feared that the passing of the Dutch East Indies would contribute to an economic decline, the dutch economy experienced especial increase ( partially because a disproportionate sum of Marshall Plan aid was received ) in the 1950s and 1960s. In fact, the demand for parturiency was thus strong that immigration was actively encouraged, first from Italy and Spain then late on, in larger numbers, from Turkey and Morocco. suriname became independent on 25 November 1975. The dutch government supported independence because it wanted to stem the menstruate of immigrants from Suriname and besides to end its colonial status. however, about one-third of the entire population of Suriname, fearing political agitation and economic decline, relocated to the Netherlands, creating a Surinamese community in the Netherlands that is now roughly adenine large as the population of Suriname itself .

liberalization [edit ]

When the post-war baby thunder children grew up, they led the disgust in the 1960s against all rigidities in Dutch life sentence. [ 174 ] The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great sociable and cultural change, such as rapid de- pillarization leading to the corrosion of the old divisions along class and religious lines. [ 195 ] A youth culture emerged all across Western Europe and the United States, characterised by student rebellion, ease, sexual freedom, informal clothes, modern hairstyles, protest music, drugs and idealism. [ 196 ] Young people, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores, and pushed for change over matters such as : women ‘s rights, sex, disarming and environmental issues. secularization, or the decline in religiosity, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural areas of Friesland and Groningen. then, it spread to Amsterdam, Rotterdam and the early major cities in the west. finally, the Catholic southern areas showed religious descent. As the social distance between the Calvinists and Catholics narrowed ( and they began to intermarry [ 197 ] ), it became potential to merge their parties. The Anti-Revolutionary Party ( ARP ) in 1977 merged with the Catholic People ‘s Party ( KVP ) and the Protestant Christian Historical Union ( CHU ) to form the Christian Democratic Appeal ( CDA ). [ 198 ] however, a countervailing tendency subsequently appeared as the result of a religious revival in the Protestant Bible Belt, and the emergence of the Muslim and Hindu communities as a result of immigration from overseas and high gear fertility levels. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] After 1982, there was a retrenchment of the wellbeing system, specially regarding old-age pensions, unemployment benefits, and disability pensions/early retirement benefits. [ 201 ] Following the 1994 cosmopolitan election, in which the Christian democratic CDA lost a considerable share of its representatives, the social-liberal Democrats 66 ( D66 ) doubled in size and formed a alliance with the labor party ( Netherlands ) ( PvdA ), and the People ‘s Party for Freedom and Democracy ( VVD ). This empurpled ( government ) alliance marked the first absence of the CDA in a politics for decades. During the Purple Coalition years, a period lasting until the rise of the democrat politician Pim Fortuyn, the politics addressed issues previously viewed as taboo under the Christian-influenced cabinet. At this prison term, the dutch politics introduced unprecedented legislation based on a policy of official tolerance ( gedoogbeleid ). abortion and euthanasia were decriminalised, but stricter guidelines were set for their implementation. drug policy, particularly with respect to the regulation of cannabis, was reformed. prostitution was legalised, but confined to brothels where the health and safety of those involved could be properly monitored. With the 2001 Same-Sex Marriage Act, the Netherlands became the beginning area in the world to legalise same-sex marriage. In addition to sociable reforms, the Purple Coalition besides presided over a period of noteworthy economic prosperity .

late politics [edit ]

Wim Kok served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 22 July 2002. At the 1998 general election, the Purple Coalition consisting of Social Democrats, and left and rightist Liberals, increased its majority. Both the social democratic PvdA and the conservative liberal VVD grew at the cost of their junior collaborator in cabinet, the liberal liberal D66. The voters rewarded the Purple Coalition for its economic operation, which had included reduction of unemployment and the budget deficit, brace growth and job creation combined with engage freezes and trim of the social welfare state, together with a policy of fiscal restraint. [ 202 ] The solution was the moment Kok cabinet. [ 203 ] The office of the coalition waned with the presentation of List Pim Fortuyn in the Dutch general election of 2002, a democrat party, which ran a distinctly anti-immigration and anti-purple campaign, citing “ empurpled chaos ” ( Puinhopen van Paars ) as the source of the countries social woes. In the inaugural political assassination for three centuries, Fortuyn was murdered with little over a workweek left before the election. In the wake of its drawing card ‘s death, LPF swept the elections, entering fantan with one-sixth of the seats, while the PvdA ( Labour ) lost one-half of its seats. The ensuing cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD and LPF, led by Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende. Though the party succeeded in displacing the equal Purple Coalition, without the charismatic figure of Pim Fortuyn at its helm, it proved to be ephemeral ; lasting a bare 87 days in government. [ 204 ] Two events changed the political landscape :

  • On 6 May 2002, the assassination of Politician Pim Fortuyn, calling for a very strict policy on immigration, shocked the nation, not at all used to political violence in peacetime. His party won a landslide election victory, partly because of his perceived martyrdom, However, internal party squabbles and blowing up the coalition government they had helped to create, resulted in the loss of 70% of their support at early general elections in 2003.
  • Another murder that caused great upheaval took place on 2 November 2004, when film director and publicist Theo van Gogh was assassinated by a Dutch-Moroccan youth with Islamic extremist views because of Van Gogh’s alleged blasphemy. One week later, several arrests were made of several would-be Islamic terrorists, who have later been found guilty of conspiracy with terrorist intentions, this verdict was however reversed on appeal. All this sparked a debate on the position of Islamic extremism and of Islam generally in Dutch society, and on immigration and integration. The personal protection of most politicians, especially of the Islam critic Ayaan Hirsi Ali, was stepped up to unprecedented levels.

The Netherlands today [edit ]

By 2000, the population had increased to 15,900,000 people, [ 157 ] making the Netherlands one of the most densely-populated countries in the world. Urban development has led to the development of a conurbation called the Randstad ( dutch : Randstad ), which includes the four largest cities ( Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht ), and the surrounding areas. With a population of 7,100,000 ; it is one of the largest conurbations in Europe. On 26 December 2004 during the Christmas vacation and Boxing Day celebration, several Dutch people in Thailand and the other function across of South and Southeast Asia were among thousands of people killed by the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami off indonesian island ‘s west coast of Sumatra, which suffered from the meaning loss of Dutch lives. A memorial service held at Basilica of St. Nicholas Cathedral in Amsterdam in January 2005 was held on behalf of the Queen of the Netherlands. This belittled nation has successfully developed into one of the most open, dynamic and golden countries in the world. It had the tenth-highest per caput income in the universe in 2011. It has an open, market-based mix economy, ranking thirteenth out of 157 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. [ 205 ] In May 2011, the OECD ranked the Netherlands as the “ happiest ” country in the world. [ 206 ] On Koningsdag ( King’s Day ), 30 April 2013, Prince Willem Alexander appointed as the King, having ascended the toilet following his mother ‘s abdication, Queen Beatrix. At the time of her abdication at historic period 75, Beatrix was the oldest regnant sovereign in the state ‘s history. On 17 July 2014, 193 dutch people are among 300 people on aboard killed in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 flat shot down by the air-surface projectile in Eastern Ukraine near russian surround. A referendum on the approval of the Association Agreement between the European Union and Ukraine was held in The Hague on 6 April 2016. VVD Prime Minister Mark Rutte won the 2017 general election and formed a third gear politics and was in first few months challenged after the People ‘s Party for Freedom and Democracy voted since 2006. In March 2021, centre-right VVD of Prime Minister Mark Rutte was the winner of the elections, securing 35 out of 150 seats. The second biggest party was the centre-left D66 with 24 seats. Geert Wilders ‘ reactionary party lost its digest. Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in might since 2010, formed his fourth alliance government. [ 207 ]

Historians and historiography [edit ]

Historians [edit ]

historiography [edit ]

The American John Lothrop Motley was the first foreign historian to write a major history of the Dutch Republic. In 3500 pages he crafted a literary masterpiece that was translated into numerous languages ; his dramatic fib reached a wide hearing in the nineteenth hundred. Motley relied heavily on Dutch eruditeness and immersed himself in the sources. His style no longer attracts readers, and scholars have moved away from his simplistic dichotomies of good versus evil, Dutch versus Spanish, Catholic versus Protestant, freedom versus dictatorship. His theory of causing over-emphasized ethnicity as an unchanging characteristic, exaggerated the importance of William of Orange, and gave undue importance to the issue of religious tolerance. [ 220 ] The initiate Dutch cultural historian Johan Huizinga, generator of The Autumn of the Middle Ages ( 1919 ) ( the English translation was called The Waning of the Middle Ages ) and Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture ( 1935 ), which expanded the field of cultural history and influenced the historical anthropology of younger historians of the french Annales School. He was influenced by art history and advised historians to trace “ patterns of culture ” by studying “ themes, figures, motifs, symbols, styles and sentiments. ” [ 221 ] The “ polder model ” continues to strongly influence historians arsenic well as dutch political discussion. The polder exemplary stressed the need for finding consensus and discouraged angered argument and angry dissent in both academia and politics – in contrast to the highly developed, intense debates in Germany. [ 222 ] The H-Net list H-Low-Countries is published unblock by electronic mail and is edited by scholars. Its casual messages serve an international community with diverse methodological approaches, archival experiences, teaching styles, and intellectual traditions, promotes discussion relevant to the region and to the different national histories in particular, with an emphasis on the Netherlands. H-Low-Countries publishes conference announcements, questions and discussions ; reviews of books, journals, and articles ; and tables of contents of journals on the history of the abject Countries ( in both Dutch and English ). [ 223 ] After World War II both research-oriented and teaching-oriented historians have been rethinking their interpretative approaches to Dutch history, balancing traditional memories and modern scholarship. [ 224 ] In terms of democratic history, there has been an campaign to ensure greater historical accuracy in museums and historic tourist sites. [ 225 ] once heralded as the leading consequence of modern Dutch history, the Dutch Revolt lasted from 1568 to 1648, and historians have worked to interpret it for even longer. In 2007, Laura Cruz explained the major debates among scholars regarding the Dutch bid for independence from spanish rule. While agreeing that the cerebral milieu of deep 19th and twentieth centuries affected historians ‘ interpretations, Cruz argued that writings about the rebellion trace changing perceptions of the role played by little countries in the history of Europe. In late decades grand piano theory has fallen out of favor among most scholars, who emphasize the finical over the general. dutch and belgian historiography since 1945 no longer says the disgust was the culmination of an inevitable work leading to independence and exemption. rather scholars have put the political and economic details of the towns and provinces under the microscope, while agreeing on the weaknesses of attempts at centralization by the Habsburg rulers. The most influential new studies have been rooted in demographic and economic history, though scholars continue to debate the relationship between economics and politics. The religious dimension has been viewed in terms of mentalities, exposing the minority put of Calvinism, while the international aspects have been studied more badly by alien historians than by the Dutch themselves. [ 226 ] Pieter Geyl was the leading historian of the Dutch Revolt, and an influential professor at the University of London ( 1919–1935 ) and at the State University of Utrecht ( 1936–1958 ). He wrote a six-volume history of the Dutch-speaking peoples. [ 227 ] The Nazis imprisoned him in World War II. In his political views, Geyl adopted the views of the 17th-century Dutch Louvestein faction, led by Johan van Oldenbarneveldt and Johan de Witt. It stood for familiarity, toleration, and national interests in contrast to the Orange stadholders who sought to promote their own egoism. According to Geyl, the Dutch Republic reached the flower of its powers during the seventeenth century. He was besides a steadfast patriot and suggested that Flanders could split off from Belgium and join the Netherlands. former he decried what he called root nationalism and stressed more the life force of western Civilization. Geyl was highly critical of the world history set about of Arnold J. Toynbee. [ 228 ] Jan Romein created a “ theoretical history ” in an attack to reestablish the relevance of history to public life in the 1930s at a time of huge political doubt and cultural crisis, when Romein thought that history had become excessively inward-looking and isolated from other disciplines. Romein, a bolshevik, wanted history to contribute to social improvement. At the like clock, influenced by the successes of theoretical physics and his report of Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Frederick John Teggart, and others, he spurred on the development of theoretical history in the Netherlands, to the luff where it became a subject in its own right at the university level after the war. Romein used the term integral history as a stand-in for cultural history and focused his attention on the period around the turn of the hundred. He concluded that a serious crisis occurred in european refinement in 1900 because of the rise of anti-semitism, extreme nationalism, discontentment with the parliamentary system, depersonalization of the express, and the rejection of positivity. european culture waned as the result of this crisis which was accompanied by the ascent of the United States, the Americanization of the world, and the emergence of Asia. His interpretation is evocative of that of his mentor Johan Huizinga and was criticized by his colleague Pieter Geyl. [ 229 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

See besides : bibliography of the history of the Netherlands [ nl ]

Geography and environment [edit ]

  • Burke, Gerald L. (1960), The making of Dutch towns: A study in urban development from the 10th–17th centuries
  • Lambert, Audrey M. (1985), The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands, focus on the history of land reclamation
  • Meijer, Henk (1985), Compact geography of The Netherlands
  • Riley, R. C.; Ashworth, G. J. (1975), Benelux: An Economic Geography of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

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