Coins of the United States dollar ( aside from those of the earlier Continental currency ) were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually and they make up a valuable aspect of the United States currency system. today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢ ( i.e. 1 cent or $ 0.01 ), 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, and $ 1.00. besides minted are bullion ( including gold, flatware and platinum ) and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint. The coins are then sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the country ‘s economy .
stream neologism [edit ]
today, four mints operate in the United States producing billions of coins each year. The main mint is the Philadelphia Mint, [ 1 ] which produces circulating neologism, mint sets and some commemorative coins. The Denver Mint [ 2 ] besides produces circulating neologism, mint sets and commemoratives. The San Francisco Mint [ 3 ] produces regular and silver proof coinage, and produced circulating neologism until the 1970s. The West Point Mint [ 4 ] produces bullion neologism ( including proof ). Philadelphia and Denver produce the dies used at all of the mints. The proof and mint sets are manufactured each year and check examples of all of the year ‘s circulate coins. The producing mint of each mint may be well identified, as most coins bear a mint score. The identify letter of the batch can be found on the front side of most coins, and is frequently placed near the class. overlooked coins are issued by the Philadelphia mint. Among grade coins, Philadelphia coins bear a letter P. Denver coins bear a letter D, San Francisco coins bear a letter S, and West Point coins bear a letter W. S and W coins are rarely, found in general circulation, although S coins bearing dates prior to the mid-1970s are in circulation. The CC, O, C, and D mint marks were used on amber and argent coins for versatile periods from the mid-19th hundred until the early twentieth century by irregular mints in Carson City, Nevada ; New Orleans, Louisiana ; Charlotte, North Carolina ; and Dahlonega, Georgia. Most such coins that still exist are now in the hands of collectors and museums.
Coins in circulation [edit ]
Remarks [edit ]
- The mass and composition of the cent changed to the current copper-plated zinc core in 1982. Both types were minted in 1982 with no distinguishing mark. Cents minted in 1943 were struck on planchets punched from zinc-coated steel which left the resulting edges uncoated. This caused many of these coins to rust. These “steel pennies” are not likely to be found in circulation today, as they were later intentionally removed from circulation for recycling the metal and by collectors. However, cents minted from 1944 to 1946 were made from a special salvaged WWII brass composition to replace the steel cents, but still save material for the war effort, and are more common in circulation than their 1943 counterparts.
- The wheat cent was mainstream and common during its time. Some dates are rare, but many can still be found in circulation. This is partially due to the fact that unlike the formerly silver denominations (dollar, half dollar, quarter, and dime), the composition of the pre-1982 cent, nearly pure copper, is not so much more valuable over face value for it to be hoarded to the extreme extent of the silver denominations.
- Nickels produced from mid-1942 through 1945 were manufactured from 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese. This allowed the saved nickel metal to be shifted to industrial production of military supplies during World War II. Few of these are still found in circulation.
- Prior to 1965 and passage of the Coinage Act of 1965 the composition of the dime, quarter, half-dollar and dollar coins was 90% silver and 10% copper. The half-dollar continued to be minted in a 40% silver-clad composition between 1965 and 1970. Dimes and quarters from before 1965 and half-dollars from before 1971 are generally not in circulation due to being removed for their silver content.
- In 1975 and 1976 U.S. Bicentennial coinage was minted. Regardless of date of coining, each coin bears the dual date “1776-1976”. The Quarter-Dollar, Half-Dollar and Dollar coins were issued in the copper 91.67% nickel 8.33% composition for general circulation and the Government issued six-coin Proof Set. A special three-coin set of 40% silver coins were also issued by the U.S. Mint in both Uncirculated and Proof.
- Use of the half-dollar is not as widespread as that of other coins in general circulation; most Americans use dollar coins, quarters, dimes, nickels and cents only, as these are the only coins most often found in general circulation. When found, many 50¢ coins are quickly hoarded, spent, or brought to banks. As large numbers of half dollars are typically held by banks or available to order, they are often sought after by coin roll hunters for the purpose of searching for silver coins, proofs, and coins not intended for circulation.
- The Presidential Dollar series features portraits of all deceased U.S. Presidents with four coin designs issued each year in the order of the president’s inauguration date. These coins began circulating on February 15, 2007. Starting 2012, these coins have been minted only for collectible sets because of a large stockpile.
- The Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was minted from 1979 to 1981 and 1999. The 1999 minting was in response to Treasury supplies of the dollar becoming depleted and the inability to accelerate the minting of the Sacagawea dollars by a year. 1981 Anthony dollars can sometimes be found in circulation from proof sets that were broken open, but these dollars were not minted with the intent that they circulate.
- Although dollar coins have not been struck for circulation since 2011, the American Innovation dollar is considered a circulation coin by the US Mint.
- Since 2019, each American Innovation dollar coin features a different privy mark, changed annually, located just below “IN GOD WE TRUST”.
bullion coins [edit ]
Non-circulating bullion coins have been produced each year since 1986. They can be found in gold, silver, platinum ( since 1997 ), and palladium ( since 2017 ). The face prize of these coins is legal as tender, but does not actually reflect the value of the cute metallic element contained therein. On May 11, 2011, Utah became the beginning state to accept these coins as the value of the valued metal in common transactions. The Utah State Treasurer assigns a numeric precious alloy value to these coins each week based on the point metal prices. The bullion coin types include “ S ” ( San Francisco, 1986-1992 ), “ p ” ( Philadelphia, 1993 – 2000 ), and “ W ” ( West Point, New York, 2001–present ). [ 9 ]
commemorative coins [edit ]
modern commemoratives have been minted since 1982. A list is available here .
|Type||Total Weight||Diameter||Composition||Face Value||Precious Metal Content|
|Half Dollar||11.34 g||30.61 mm (1.205 in)||Cu 92%, Ni 8%||50¢||none|
|12.50 g||Ag 90%, Cu 10%||silver 10.25374 g (~0.36169 ozt)|
|Dollar||26.73 g||38.1 mm (1.500 in)||Ag 90%, Cu 10%||$1||silver 24.057 g (~0.773 ozt)|
|Half Eagle||8.539 g||21.59 mm (0.850 in)||Au 90%, Ag 6%, Cu 4%||$5||gold 7.523 g (~0.2418 ozt)|
|Eagle||16.718 g||26.92 mm (1.060 in)||Au 90%, Ag 6%, Cu 4%||$10||gold 15.05 g (~0.484 ozt)|
|Bi-metallic Eagle||16.259 g||26.92 mm (1.060 in)||Au 48%, Pt 48%, alloy 4%||gold, platinum|
|First Spouse Gold Bullion||14.175 g||26.49 mm (1.043 in)||Au 99.99%||gold 14.175 g (~0.456 ozt)|
mint marks [edit ]
list of current and past United States Mint branches and mint marks found on their coins :
|Mint||Mint mark||Metal minted||Year established||Current status|
|Denver||D||All metals||1906||Facility open|
|Philadelphia||P or none[a]||All metals||1792||Facility open|
|San Francisco||S||All metals||1854||Facility open (mainly produces proof)|
|West Point||W or none[b]||Gold, Silver, Platinum and Palladium||1973||Facility open (mainly produces bullion)|
|Carson City||CC||Gold and Silver||1870||Facility closed, 1893[c]|
|Charlotte||C||Gold only||1838||Facility closed, 1861|
|Dahlonega||D[d]||Gold only||1838||Facility closed, 1861|
|Manila[e]||M or none[f]||All metals||1920||Facility closed, 1922; re-opened 1925–1941|
|New Orleans||O||Gold and Silver||1838||Facility closed, 1861; re-opened 1879–1909[g]|
Obsolete and canceled coins [edit ]
Note: It is a common misconception that “ eagle ” -based terminology for gold U.S. neologism was merely slang. The “ eagle, ” “ half-eagle ” and “ quarter-eagle ” were specifically given these names in the Coinage Act of 1792. Likewise, the double eagle was specifically created as such by name ( “ An Act to authorize the neologism of Gold Dollars and Double Eagles ”, entitle and section 1, March 3, 1849 ). Some modern commemorative coins have been minted in the flatware dollar, half-eagle and eagle denominations. See besides US mint sizes, showing all major U.S. coin series and scale images in a individual chart. The jurisprudence governing disused, mutilated, and break coins and currency, including types which are no longer in production ( e.g. indian cents ), can be found in 31 U.S.C. § 5120 .
Mill coins [edit ]
Although the term mill ( besides mil or mille ) was defined in the eighteenth hundred as 1⁄1,000 of a dollar or 0.1¢, no mint smaller than 0.5¢ has ever been officially minted in the U.S. however, unofficial mill coins, besides called “ tenth penny ” or “ tax-help coins ”, made of diverse materials—plastic, forest, can, and others—were produced a late as the 1960s by some states, localities, and secret businesses for tax payments and to render deepen for small purchases .
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
- The letter “ P ” is used for the Philadelphia mint mark on all coins ( except cents ) released from 1980 ahead. Before this it had lone been used on silver Jefferson nickels from 1942 to 1945 .
- between 1973 and 1986 there was no batch score ( these coins are indistinguishable from coins produced at the Philadelphia Mint from 1973 to 1980 ) ; after 1988 the letter “ W ” was used for neologism, except for the 2009 Ultra High Relief Double Eagle .
- It is now the home of the Nevada State Museum, which hush strikes commemorative medallions with the “ CC ” batch score ( most recently in 2014 commemorating the Nevada Sesquicentennial ), using the former mint ‘s original coin weight-lift.
- Although the mint mark “ D ” has been used by two classify mints, it is easy to distinguish between the two, as any 19th-century neologism is Dahlonega, and any 20th- or 21st-century coins are Denver .
- During the time period in which this batch branch was functional, The Philippines was an insular territory and then commonwealth of the U.S. ; it was the foremost ( and to date alone ) U.S. outgrowth batch located outside the Continental United States .
- The letter “ M ” was used for the Manila mint scar on all coins released from 1925 ahead ; before this, it had produced its coins with no mintmark .
- During the Civil War, this mint operated under the control of the State of Louisiana ( February 1861 ) and the Confederate States of America ( March 1861 ) until it ran out of bullion late in that class ; some Half Dollars have been identified as being the write out of the State of Louisiana and the Confederacy .
References [edit ]
- United States Mint
- Page of 1792 Mint and Coinage Act (Describes the first completely regulated U.S. coinage system)
- “A Peculiar Stamp of Our Owne”: The Massachusetts Mint and the Battle over Sovereignty” by Jonathan Barth