Lincoln cent – Wikipedia

One-cent United States coin
The Lincoln cent ( sometimes called the Lincoln penny ) is a one-cent coin that has been struck by the United States Mint since 1909. The obverse or heads side was designed by Victor David Brenner, as was the master change by reversal, depicting two stalks of pale yellow ( thus “ pale yellow pennies ”, struck 1909–1958 ). The mint has seen several overrule, or tails, designs and now bears one by Lyndall Bass depicting a Union shield. All coins struck by the United States government with a value of 1⁄100 of a dollar are called cents because the United States has constantly minted coins using decimals. The penny dub is a carryover from the coins struck in England, which went to decimals for coins in 1971. In 1905, sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens was hired by the Mint to redesign the cent and the four gold coins, which did not require congressional blessing. Two of Saint-Gaudens ‘s project designs for the penny were finally adapted for the gold pieces, but Saint-Gaudens died in August 1907 before submitting extra designs for the penny. In January 1909, the Mint engaged Brenner to design a penny depicting the deep president of the united states Abraham Lincoln, 1909 being the centennial class of his birth. It was the first widely circulating design of a U.S. president on a mint, an idea that had been seen as excessively monarchal in the past, namely by George Washington. Nevertheless, Brenner ‘s design was finally approved, and the new coins were issued to bang-up public interest on August 2, 1909. Brenner ‘s initials ( VDB ), on the reverse at its base, were deemed excessively outstanding once the coins were issued, and were removed within days of the release. The initials were restored, this clock time smaller, on Lincoln ‘s shoulder, in 1918. originally struck in 95 % copper, the penny mint was changed for one year to zinc-coated steel in 1943 as copper was needed to care in the war attempt. The mint then reverted to 95 % copper until 1982, when inflation made copper besides expensive and the composing was changed to zinc with an out copper layer. Brenner ‘s pale yellow change by reversal was replaced in 1959 by a depiction of the Lincoln Memorial designed by Frank Gasparro, for the sesquicentennial of his birth year. The Lincoln Memorial reverse was itself replaced in 2009 by four commemorative designs marking the bicentennial of Lincoln ‘s parturition. Beginning in 2010, Bass ‘s harbor design was coined.

Wheat penny ( 1909–1958 )

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origin [edit ]

Wheat cent reverse In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote to his Secretary of the Treasury, Leslie Mortier Shaw, complaining that U.S. neologism lacked artistic deservingness, and enquiring if it would be possible to engage a private artist, such as sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, to prepare modern mint designs. At Roosevelt ‘s instructions, the Mint hired Saint-Gaudens to redesign the penny and the four gold pieces : the double eagle ( $ 20 ), eagle ( $ 10 ), half eagle ( $ 5 ), and quarter eagle ( $ 2.50 ). As the designs of those pieces had remained the same for 25 years, they could be changed without an act of Congress. The indian Head cent, which the Lincoln cent replaced, had been introduced in 1859. Saint-Gaudens in the first place conceived a flying eagle design for the cent, but at Roosevelt ‘s request, developed it for the double eagle after learning that by law, an eagle could not appear on the penny. Writer and friend Witter Bynner recalled that in January 1907, Saint-Gaudens was seriously ill with cancer, and was carried to his studio for ten minutes a day to critique the workplace of his assistants on stream projects, including the penny. Saint-Gaudens send Roosevelt a invention in February for the obverse of the penny showing a figure of Liberty. Roosevelt suggested the addition of a native American war hood, submit, “ I do n’t see why we should not have a conventional head-dress of strictly american type for the Liberty figure. ” In May 1907, Roosevelt instructed that the indian design be developed for the eagles alternatively. Saint-Gaudens was by then in declining health ; he died on August 3, 1907, without having submitted another design for the cent. With the redesign of the four gold denominations completed by 1908, Roosevelt turned his attention to the cent. The centennial of the birth of assassinated president Abraham Lincoln would occur in February 1909, and large numbers of privately manufactured souvenirs were already being issued. many citizens had written to the Treasury Department, proposing a Lincoln coin, and Roosevelt was interested in honoring his boyfriend Republican. This was a break with former american numismatic tradition ; before the Lincoln cent, no regularly circulating U.S. mint had featured an actual person ( as opposed to idealize personifications, as of “ autonomy ” ). [ 8 ] many writers had suggested a Lincoln one-half dollar, but that coin ‘s design had been changed in 1892 and could not so far be altered without congressional approval. By then a feeble duck in position, Roosevelt was loath to involve Congress. In late 1908, Roosevelt sat for sculptor Victor David Brenner, who was designing a decoration for the Panama Canal Commission. While the contents of their conversations were never recorded, it appears they discussed Roosevelt ‘s plans for neologism redesign. Roosevelt had admired a 1907 plaque of Lincoln which the artist had produced. It is unsealed how Brenner was selected to design the cent, but in January 1909, Mint Director Frank A. Leach contacted Brenner to ask his tip for designing the coin. Brenner mentioned in his agreement with Leach that the President had liked his Lincoln plan ; there is no attest Brenner considered any other concept for the assemble .
Saint-Gaudens model for the cent obverse. With an indian headdress added, the design was later developed for the gold eagle coins .

design [edit ]

Brenner ‘s obverse design closely follows a profile of Lincoln he had used in other cultivate, such as the desk plaque he made for the Gorham Manufacturing Company in 1907. Numismatic historian Roger Burdette suggests that Brenner based his work on an 1864 photograph of Lincoln taken at Mathew Brady ‘s studio apartment by one of his assistants. however, Burdette adds that in an April 1, 1909 letter, Brenner mentioned that in producing the invention, he envisioned Lincoln reading to a child, when the sculptor felt Lincoln would be at his brightest. This suggests that Brenner may have drawn inspiration from the long-familiar Brady photograph of Lincoln with his son, Tad. [ a ] In a 2012 analyze published in Coin World, numismatic historian Fred Reed suggests that Brenner ‘s Lincoln exercise was based on a Brady portrait of Lincoln in right profile which was taken on the like day as the photograph with his son ( there were several photos taken at this sitting ). [ 12 ] As the photograph in question only showed Lincoln ‘s head and shoulders, Reed indicates that Brenner obtained extra contingent from an 1860 political campaign photograph of a beardless Lincoln. [ 13 ] On January 18, 1909, Brenner submitted models to the Mint with a Lincoln profile on the obverse, and a reverse design very similar to that on the then-current french silver medal coins, showing a tree branch. He besides proposed designs for a Lincoln half dollar, with the late president to appear on one side, and a standing Liberty design—almost identical to the obverse of the lapp french coins. Leach replied on February 2 that no change to the half dollar could be made without congressional approval. By February 9, Leach had discovered the lineage of the branch design—although numismatic historian Don Taxay notes that it is odd Leach had not discovered the source of the standing Liberty design, given that they were on diametric sides of the same french coins. Leach did not confront the sculptor with the aesthetic borrowing, but alternatively plainly ruled out the submit designs as undesirable for the change by reversal of the penny. He urged the sculptor to prepare a simple design, bearing the appellation, the nation ‘s name, and the motto “ E pluribus unum “. Brenner worked quickly, and on February 17, delivered models for both obverse and reverse similar to the eventual mint, though with a slightly larger flop of Lincoln, and the motto “ In God We Trust “ omitted. As a design component on the reverse, Brenner used two ears of durum wheat. The designs were shown to President Roosevelt, who approved them although Roosevelt required “ UNITED ”, which Brenner had spelled “ VNITED ”, to be spelled in the conventional way. After Leach examined the models, he objected to the fact that Brenner had put his full surname on the obverse. Brenner wrote in reelect, “ I shall take it out and put it in minor letters on the reversion. ” On March 4, 1909, the day on which Roosevelt left position, replaced by William Howard Taft, Brenner met with Mint Engraver Charles E. Barber in Philadelphia. Barber had written to Leach, suggesting that Brenner ‘s designs would have to be modified to be desirable for neologism. On March 15, Brenner wrote to Leach stating that Barber seemed in no rush to have the new coins produced. Brenner besides complained that the Mint was losing detail as it reduced the big models to coin-sized hub. Barber had been stung by criticism that he had lost detail in this way with the new gold coins, and he raised no objection to having the reductions done by an outside silversmith. After several hubs were prepared by the Medallic Art Company of New York, Barber sank a chief die and sent it to Brenner for retouching. Patterns were prepared from the dies, but Barber and Leach were dysphoric with the pieces. On May 22, Leach wrote to Brenner ,

I have to inform you that I was not satisfied with the inaugural proof of the Lincoln penny. I found that you had not dropped the Lincoln portrait down so that the head would come nearer the center of the coin … consequently I had Mr. Barber make me a validation of this change, and as this left therefore much blank space over the top we concluded that it would be better to put on the motto, “ In God We Trust ”. This exchange has made a stigmatize improvement in the appearance of the mint .

On May 26, samples of the new coin with and without the motto were shown to President Taft, who selected the mottoed adaptation. The mint was formally approved by Secretary of the Treasury Franklin MacVeagh on July 14 and a free date of August 2, 1909, was set .

release [edit ]

The public lines up to buy Lincoln cents outside the Sub-Treasury building, New York City, August 2, 1909. The Philadelphia Mint struck 20,000,000 of the new coin even before its design was made official by Secretary MacVeagh. Dies for the San Francisco Mint, prepared at Philadelphia, were ready for dispatch to San Francisco on June 22. There was acute public matter to in the new cents, particularly since the Mint had not permitted images of the new coin to be printed in the newspapers. The Lincoln fad sparked by the centennial had not so far subsided, and there was far-flung speculation about the mint ‘s design. The Mint decided to plan for a coincident secrete of the coin across the United States on August 2, and Treasury Department branches were sent what were thought to be adequate supplies. On the dawn of August 2, 1909, long lines formed outside Treasury facilities across the United States. Some early applicants were able to obtain all the coins they wanted, but soon the pieces were rationed : applicants at the New York Sub-Treasury were allowed 100 pieces per person ; those who sought the coins at the Philadelphia Mint were allowed only two each. Coins passed on the secondary commercialize outside the Philadelphia Mint for a one-fourth each until prices settled down to five cents per newly penny. many newsboys were among those who profited from the new coins ; crowd gathered around the windows where the coins were for sale in Washington until order was restored .

Brenner ‘s initials [edit ]

Brenner ‘s initials, which he had placed at the base of the revoke, immediately became a source of controversy—on the good afternoon of August 2, The Washington Star queried the Treasury as to the initials. Quotes appeared in the papers from ( possibly invented ) nameless Treasury officials, opining that the coins were illegal because of the initials, which were seen as advertise. On August 5, Secretary MacVeagh ordered neologism of the penny suspended until the coins could be struck with an inconspicuous “ B ” for Brenner on the mint. however, removing the initials and striking new pieces with no initials would lead to a three-day delay in neologism ; effacing the initials and inserting an initial “ B ” would cause a 14-day delay. Assistant Treasury Secretary Eliot Norton, after meeting with Barber, ordered that the coins be struck with no initial. Treasury Department Solicitor Maurice O’Connell held that the exception of the initials did not constitute a plan transfer which could alone have been implemented by waiting 25 years or obtaining congressional approval. Barber besides opposed retaining a one initial “ B ”, fearing that as he had used an identical initial on his Barber coinage, the new coin would be deemed to be his work, and, according to Norton, “ He is not will to be held personally responsible for the Lincoln penny which he has always opposed and does not regard as a successful coin. ” Brenner objected to the removal of his initials, but his protests were to no avail. The cents without Brenner ‘s initials were in production by August 12, 1909. During the stop, owners of vending and slot machines complained that the raw pennies were excessively thickly to fit in their machines. [ 34 ] Barber was recalled from his vacation in Cape May, New Jersey, to deal with the complaints. Leach ordered changes in the new penny, but Barber resisted Leach ‘s orders, and was in the end successful—vending and slot machine manufacturers modified their machines to suit the new penny, rather than the other way around. By the end of 1909, provision of the new cents was ultimately astir to demand. Burdette suggests that had MacVeagh been more experience in his job, he would have been less refer about the initials. Saint-Gaudens had prominently signed his doubling eagle on the obverse, and George T. Morgan ‘s design for the silver dollar contained an “ M ” marked on both sides of the nibble .

production [edit ]

Cents with and without Brenner ‘s initials were struck at both Philadelphia and San Francisco in 1909. Coins struck at Philadelphia bear no mintmark ; those struck at San Francisco were marked with an S. While about 28 million Philadelphia VDB cents were struck, making them quite common, the 1909-S with Brenner ‘s initials ( normally called the 1909-S VDB ) is the rarest Lincoln penny by go steady and mintmark, with only 484,000 released for circulation. In 1911, the Denver Mint began striking cents with the mintmark D, and in most years in the postdate decades, all three mints struck cents. In 1916, Barber modified the design, causing Lincoln ‘s boldness and coat to appear less purse. This alteration was done to extend die animation. In 1917, a year which saw Barber ‘s end in office at historic period 77, the wartime economy caused a dearth of cents. At this time, the Lincoln cent had not yet become dominant in circulation ; four-fifths of the cents in circulation were of the older indian Head blueprint. demand for the penny continued to increase when a lavishness tax was instituted, and cents were needed to make variety. In 1918, Brenner ‘s initials were restored to the mint, appearing where Lincoln ‘s shoulder is cut off by the brim of the mint. The recession year of 1922 saw a lower-than-usual need for coins in department of commerce, and few cents were coined. At the time, dies were only made at Philadelphia ; the Denver Mint had outstanding orders for cents that year. When Denver applied to the Philadelphia Mint for more dies ( cents were not struck at either Philadelphia or San Francisco that class ), it was told that the Philadelphia Mint could supply no more cent dies, as it was amply engaged in preparing dies for the Peace dollar. Denver filled its orders by striking with a raddled obverse die, which impressed the design faint than common. On many strikes, the mintmark on the die filled with petroleum and dirt, producing coins on which the mintmark does not appear, or appears only faintly. The 1922 plain patch is another relatively rare one in the Lincoln cent series. When the 25-year menstruation during which the Lincoln cent could not be changed without congressional approval expired, there was no interest in replacing the purpose as the mint had remained popular. Beginning in 1936, validation coins were struck for collectors for the first time since 1916. Made only at Philadelphia, these pieces were coined from dies polished to mirror suavity .

War-time cents [edit ]

With the US entry into World War II in 1941, copper and can, which were both used in the cent, were in short issue. Experiments were carried out by several corporations under condense from the Mint ; they tested versatile metallic and non-metallic substances, including fiber, temper glass, and several types of fictile. These experiments used assorted designs, since actual Lincoln penny dies could not leave government custody. As the experiments proceeded, production of bronze cents was cut back drastically in July 1942, and ceased in December. On December 18, 1942, Congress gave the mint authority to change the composition of the cent for a three-year time period, and five days late, Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau announced that the coin would be made out of zinc-coated sword. Zinc and iron form an electromagnetic “ couple ” ; the two metals soon corrode when in contact with each early in a muffle air. The public soon complained that the newfangled coins were becoming spotted and stained. Another common complaint was confusion with the dime, and some letters suggested that a hole be punched in the center of the new coins. Morgenthau responded that the new pieces would soon become dark, and that the Mint would be bequeath to darken them if it could figure out a suitable work. production of the war-time penny was provided for in an Act of Congress approved on December 18, 1942, which besides set as the passing date of the authority December 31, 1946. low-grade carbon steel formed the base of these coins, to which a zinc coating 0.0005-inch ( 0.013 millimeter ) slurred was deposited on each side electrolytically as a rust hindrance. This application was applied to the steel before the blanks were made, leaving the rims of these coins highly susceptible to rust. The same size was maintained, but the weight was reduced from the standard 48 grains ( 3.1 gravitational constant ) to 42 grains ( 2.7 gravitational constant ), by using a light admixture. Production commenced on February 27, 1943, and by December 31 of that year, the three Mint facilities had produced 1,093,838,670 of the one-cent coins. The copper released for the war feat was enough to meet the compound needs of two cruisers, two destroyers, 1,243 Flying Fortresses, 120 field guns and 120 howitzers, or enough for 1,250,000 shells for large field guns. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] In December 1943, the Treasury Department announced that the sword cent would be discontinued after 1943, to be replaced with coins containing 95 % bull and 5 % zinc ( pre-1943 cents contained the lapp percentage of bull but might besides contain tin in place of some of the zinc ). The Treasury besides stated that some of the alloy for the new coins would be obtained by melting down little arms ammunition shells. however, numismatic writer Shane Anderson, in his study of the Lincoln cent, doubts that any shells were melted down, except possibly ceremonially. After the war, the Treasury restfully retired as many steel cents as it could from circulation, while denying it was doing so—no populace admission of the program was made until 1959, as the Treasury feared that were it publicly known, the coins would be hoarded. A few 1943 bronze cents and 1944 steel cents are known to exist, and they are valuable. only one 1943-D penny in bronze is known ; it sold in September 2010 for $ 1.7 million. [ 52 ] One of the four known 1943-S cents in bronze was sold to Texas Rangers baseball team co-chairman Bob R. Simpson for $ 1 million. [ 53 ] One 1943 penny struck in 86.41 % tin and 8.37 % antimony with other trace metals was authenticated in 2019. [ 54 ] There are besides many cents date 1943 that were coated with copper to imitate the actual rarity. These pieces may be distinguished from genuine off-metal strikes by the use of a attraction. The planchets from which the 1943 and 1944 off-metal strikes were coined were most likely concealed in the mint equipment and were struck when neologism resumed after year end. In September 2010, a record was set when a unique off-metal 1943-D Copper Cent sold for $ 1.7 million. [ 55 ] This is presently the most expensive Lincoln penny that has always been sold. The cent returned to its prewar composition in 1944 .

Lincoln Memorial blueprint ( 1959–2008 ) [edit ]

Lincoln Memorial cent turn back

In 1952, the Mint considered replacing the Lincoln cent with a new design by Mint Chief Engraver Gilroy Roberts, but Mint officials feared that the incoming Eisenhower administration would be hostile to replacing a republican on the cent. several thousand 1955 pieces were struck with a double die, and display doubling of the date. The Mint was mindful of the pieces, and knew they were somewhere within a large production lot, but opted to release them, preferably than destroy the entire bunch. The variety did not become wide known until several years late. On Sunday dawn, December 21, 1958, President Eisenhower ‘s wardrobe secretary, James Hagerty, issued a press passing announcing that a new reverse design for the cent would begin production on January 2, 1959. The new design, by Frank Gasparro, had been developed by the Treasury in consultation with the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission. Approved by the President and by Secretary of the Treasury Robert B. Anderson, the modern invention featured the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. The redesign came as a complete surprise, as word of the proposal had not been leaked. The mint was officially released on February 12, 1959, the hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of Lincoln ‘s birth, although some pieces entered circulation early on. The selected design was the consequence of an inner rival among the Mint ‘s engravers. Gasparro did not go in person to see the Lincoln Memorial, a place he had never visited. According to Anderson, Gasparro created an “ impressive ” trope of the Memorial, however, Taxay states that the design “ looks at first base glance like a streetcar car ”. Numismatic historian Walter Breen describes Gasparro ‘s design as “ an artistic calamity ”. There was considerable populace excitation over the “ little date ” and “ big date ” 1960 and 1960-D cents, with the small dates being the rare. The Mint feared the interior of the zero as punched into the die would break away during the coin process, giving the zero a filled-in appearance. To reduce the find of this happen, the Mint enlarged the date. Sealed bags of 1960 cents, with a confront value of $ 50, sold for a a lot as $ 12,000. Prices for the little date coins, of which approximately two million had been struck at Philadelphia, continued to increase until 1964, when the bubble explode. approximately 500 million of the Denver modest date ( out of a total coinage of 1.5 billion ) were struck, and are not peculiarly rare. Bowers points out that there are enough of the 1960 Philadelphia humble date known to supply every extremity of the American Numismatic Association, and every subscriber to the major mint periodicals. The composition of the mint was changed again slightly in 1962. mint officials felt that omission of the canister contentedness would have no adverse impression on the wearing qualities of the coin, whereas the manufacture advantages to be gained with the admixture stabilized at 95 % copper and 5 % zinc would be of much benefit. congressional authority for this modification was contained in an Act of Congress approved on September 5, 1962. [ 47 ] In 1964, a surface in the price of silver medal led to silver coins being hoarded by the public. With change shortstop, hoarding extended to the penny, which besides became scarce in circulation. Mint Director Eva Adams felt that contribution of the argue for the deficit was coin collectors taking pieces from circulation, and Adams ordered that mintmarks no longer appear on coins. Coins continued to be date 1964 until the end of 1965, using authority given by the Coinage Act of 1965, and about all 1965 cents were actually struck in 1966. The Mint began striking clad dimes and quarters, replacing the argent pieces which the public would not spend. Although coinage had been stopped at San Francisco after 1955, the California facility began to issue cents again, though without mintmarks. In 1968, mintmarks were restored to the penny. San Francisco began minting a limit phone number of circulation strikes ( which it would cease to do after 1974 ) and began striking proof coins. By this time the master hub had become quite wear and Lincoln ‘s features were becoming indistinct. For the 1969 coins a fresh overlord was produced for consumption in all three mints and the features were sharpened and moved far from the edge of the coin, while the letter was broadened. [ 71 ]

Changes in composition [edit ]

bull prices began to rise in 1973, to such an extent that the intrinsic value of the mint approached a penny, and citizens began to hoard cents, hoping to realize a net income. The Mint decided to switch to an aluminum cent. Over a million and a one-half such pieces were struck in the second half of 1973, though they were date 1974. At congressional hearings, representatives of the vending machine industry testified that aluminum cents would jam their equipment, and the Mint backed away from its marriage proposal. Mint director Mary Brooks sought the return of samples which had been distributed to members of Congress, but 14 remained missing, with the recipients affecting not to know what had become of them. One aluminum penny was donated to the Smithsonian Institution for the National Numismatic Collection ; [ 74 ] another was reportedly found by a US Capitol Police Officer. Experiments were besides conducted with bronze-clad steel cents. Slated for disposal, when a bulge of them tore open before going into a smelter ; a few were kept by the workers. They are besides considered to be illegally halt politics property. [ 75 ] Recognizing that a change from the stream copper musical composition was still inevitable, Congress passed Public Law 93–441 on October 11, 1974, declaring “ [ w ] henever in the sagacity of the Secretary of the Treasury such natural process is necessary to assure an adequate add of coins to meet the national needs, he may prescribe such composition of copper and zinc in the admixture of the one-cent nibble as he may deem appropriate. ” [ 76 ] [ 77 ] In 1981, faced with another rise in the price of copper, the Mint decided to change the composition of the cent to copper-covered zinc. After contract difficulties and production delays, the first such cents were struck at the Philadelphia Mint ( without mintmark ) on January 7, 1982. Denver did not convert to the new composition until October 21. A few pieces were struck by error in bronze go steady 1983 and are highly rare. [ 79 ] A count of little changes were made to the obverse design in the 1990s and early 2000s .

Lincoln Bicentennial cents ( 2009 ) [edit ]

The Presidential $ 1 Coin Act of 2005 required that the penny ‘s invert be redesigned for 2009, and that four designs be issued to celebrate the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial. The coins were to be emblematic of Lincoln ‘s early animation in Kentucky and in Indiana, of his professional life in Illinois, and of his presidency. Unveiled September 22, 2008, at a ceremony held at the Lincoln Memorial, these designs were :
The law besides required that collector ‘s sets, in the lapp debase used in 1909, be sold to the populace .

Union shield reversion “ Shield penny ” ( introduce 2010 ) [edit ]

The Presidential $ 1 Coin Act required that the penny, beginning in 2010, “ shall bear an visualize emblematic of President Lincoln ‘s preservation of the United States of America as a single and unite country ”. [ 85 ] On April 16, 2009, the Commission of Fine Arts ( CFA ) met and recommended a design that showed 13 pale yellow sheaves bound together with a ring symbolizing american one as one state. [ 86 ] subsequently, this design was withdrawn because it was alike to coins issued in Germany in the 1920s. [ 87 ] The Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee ( CCAC ) besides met and recommended a design showing a Union shield with ONE CENT superimposed in a scroll ; E pluribus unum was besides depicted in the upper parcel of the carapace. [ 87 ] In June 2009 the CFA met again and this time selected a design featuring a modern interpretation of the american flag. [ 88 ] As a separate of the release ceremony for the last of the 2009 cents on November 12, 2009, the design for the 2010 cent was announced. [ 89 ] The blueprint chosen by the CCAC was the Union harbor. [ 89 ] According to the Mint, the 13 stripes on the shield “ represent the states joined in one compress union to support the Federal government, represented by the horizontal barroom above. ” [ 90 ] The new reverse was designed by artist Lyndall Bass and sculpted by US Mint sculptor-engraver Joseph Menna. [ 91 ] The Mint re-engraved the obverse, returning to the original 1909 galvano in preparing newfangled dies. [ 92 ] however, the Mint did not return to striking the pieces in the higher relief of 1909—the piece has long been struck in a much lower relief than the original pieces. [ 93 ] In January 2010, the new coins were released early in Puerto Rico ; [ 94 ] this was prompted by a deficit of cents on the island. [ 92 ] Cents of the new plan were officially released at a ceremony at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield, Illinois, on February 11, 2010. [ 95 ] In early January 2017, cents bearing the stream date and with the mint check P appeared in circulation. The Mint had made no announcement of such coins, but confirmed their authenticity, stating that the coins had the mint mark to honor the Mint ‘s 225th anniversary. All cents struck at Philadelphia in 2017 received the mint mark, but cents struck in 2018 and thereafter do not. [ 96 ] In February 2019, the Mint announced that the West Point Mint would strike cents with that mint ‘s W batch grade. These are not released into circulation, but they are struck in three different finishes for three of the year ‘s annual sets : uncirculated, proof, and reverse proof. [ 97 ] The Circulating Collectible Coin Redesign Act of 2020 ( Pub.L. 116–330 ( text ) ( PDF ) ) was signed by President Donald Trump on January 13, 2021. It provides for, among other things, limited annual designs for the circulating coinage in 2026, including the penny, for the United States Semiquincentennial ( 250th anniversary ), with one of the designs to depict women. [ 98 ]

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]


  1. ^Burdette 2007, pp. 30–32. It is commonly believed that Lincoln was reading to Tad in this photograph; Lincoln actually held a photograph album, see Library of Congress description here


bibliography [edit ]

  • Anderson, Shane A. (1996). The Complete Lincoln Cent Encyclopedia. Iola, Wisc.: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-445-6.
  • Bowers, Q. David (2008). A Guide Book of Lincoln Cents. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7948-2264-4.
  • Breen, Walter (1988). Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins. New York, N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-14207-6.
  • Burdette, Roger W. (2007). Renaissance of American Coinage, 1909–1915. Great Falls, Va.: Seneca Mill Press. ISBN 978-0-9768986-2-7.
  • Lange, David W. (1996). The Complete Guide to Lincoln Cents. Wolfeboro, NH: Bowers & Merena Galleries, Inc. ISBN 978-0-943161-67-9.
  • Moran, Michael F. (2008). Striking Change: The Great Artistic Collaboration of Theodore Roosevelt and Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7948-2356-6.
  • Taxay, Don (1983). The U.S. Mint and Coinage (reprint of 1966 ed.). New York, N.Y.: Sanford J. Durst Numismatic Publications. ISBN 978-0-915262-68-7.
  • Yeoman, R.S. (2018). A Guide Book of United States Coins 2014 (4th ed.). Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-0-7948-4580-3.

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