|Value||1 pound sterling|
|Edge||Alternately milled and plain|
(76% Cu, 20% Zn, and 4% Ni)
|Design||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Design||Rose, leek, thistle, and shamrock encircled by a coronet|
The british one pound ( £1 ) coin is a appellation of the thump greatest. Its obverse bears the Latin engraving ELIZABETH II D G REG ( Dei Gratia Regina ) F D ( Fidei defensor ) mean, ‘Elizabeth II, by the deck of God, Queen, Defender of the Faith ‘. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the original coin ‘s introduction on 21 April 1983. [ 3 ] Four different portraits of the Queen have been used, with the latest plan by Jody Clark being introduced in 2015. The design on the reverse side of the current, 12-sided coin features four emblems to represent each of the nations of the United Kingdom — the English rose, the leek for Wales, the scots thistle, and the white clover for Northern Ireland, besides two or three oak leaves — emerging from a single 5-branched stem within a crown.
Reading: One pound (British coin) – Wikipedia
The master, round £1 coin replaced the Bank of England £1 bill, which ceased to be issued at the end of 1984 and was removed from circulation on 11 March 1988, though hush redeemable at the Bank ‘s offices, like all English banknotes. One-pound notes continue to be issued in Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man, and by the Royal Bank of Scotland, but the beat coin is much more widely used. A newfangled, dodecagonal ( 12-sided ) design of coin was introduced on 28 March 2017 [ 4 ] and both new and previous versions of the one impound mint circulated together until the older design was withdrawn from circulation on 15 October 2017. After that date, the older mint could only be redeemed at banks, [ 5 ] although some retailers announced they would continue to accept it for a limited time, [ 6 ] and they remained in habit in the Isle of Man. [ 7 ] The independent aim of redesigning the mint was to combat counterfeiting. As of March 2014 there were an estimated 1,553 million of the original nickel-brass coins in circulation, [ 8 ] of which the Royal Mint estimated in 2014 that just over 3 % were counterfeit. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The modern coin, in contrast, is bimetal like the stream £2 mint, and features an undisclosed hide security have called “ directorate for inter-services intelligence ” ( Integrated Secure Identification Systems ). [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The current 12-sided pound coins are legal bid to any sum when offered in refund of a debt ; however, the coin ‘s legal sensitive condition is not normally relevant for everyday transactions .
design [edit ]
original round mint . New 12-sided coin. To date, four different portraits of Elizabeth II have appeared on the obverse. For the first three of these, the dedication was ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D. 2013, [ 13 ] where 2013 is replaced by the year of mint. The fourth plan, unveiled in March 2015, [ 14 ] expanded the inscription slenderly to ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF. 2015. The 12-sided plan, introduced in March 2017, reverted to 2017 ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D. In summary :
In August 2005 the Royal Mint launched a rival to find new reverse designs for all circulate coins apart from the £2 coin. [ 18 ] The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, whose designs were gradually introduced into the circulating british neologism from mid-2008. [ 19 ] The designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins portray sections of the Royal Shield that form the whole shield when placed together. The shield in its entirety was featured on the £1 mint. The coin ‘s obverse remained unaltered. The design of the reverse of the original coin was changed each year from 1983 to 2008 to show, in turn, an emblem representing the UK, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and England, together with an allow edge inscription. This edge inscription could frequently be “ inverted ” ( when obverse is facing up ). [ 20 ] From 2008, national-based designs were still minted, but alongside the raw criterion version and no longer in hard-and-fast rotation. The inscription ONE POUND appeared on all reverse designs. In common with non-commemorative £2 coins, the round £1 coin ( except 2004–07 and the 2010–11 “ das kapital cities ” designs ) had a mint punctuate : a little crosslet found on the milled edge that represents Llantrisant in South Wales, where the Royal Mint has been based since 1968. [ 21 ] The change by reversal of the fresh 12-sided, bimetallistic british pound coin, introduced on 28 March 2017, [ 4 ] was chosen by a public design contest. [ 22 ] The competition to design the reverse of this coin was opened in September 2014. [ 23 ] It was won in March 2015 by 15-year-old David Pearce from Walsall, and uncover by Chancellor George Osborne during his Budget announcement. The design features a rose, leek, thistle and common wood sorrel limit by a pennant. [ 14 ]
Status as legal offer [edit ]
current £1 coins are legal bid to any come. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] however, “ legal tender ” has a very specific and minute mean which relates only to the refund of debt to a creditor, not to everyday patronize or other transactions. [ 26 ] Specifically, coins of detail denominations are said to be “ legal tender ” when a creditor must by law accept them in redemption of a debt. [ 27 ] The term does not mean – as is frequently thought – that a shopkeeper has to accept a particular character of currency in requital. [ 26 ] A shopkeeper is under no obligation to accept any specific type of payment, whether legal offer or not ; conversely they have the delicacy to accept any requital type they wish. [ 25 ]
mintage figures [edit ]
Round coin [edit ]
Mintage figures below represent the number of coins of each date released for circulation. Mint Sets have been produced since 1982; where mintages on or after that date indicate ‘none’, there are examples contained within those sets.
All years except 1998 and 1999 have been issued into circulation, although the phone number issued has varied enormously – 1983, 1984 and 1985 in particular had large mintages to facilitate the conversion from wallpaper notes, while some years such as 1988 are only rarely seen ( although 1988 is more noticeable as it has a singular reverse ). production since 1997 has been reduced, thanks to the introduction of the circulating two pound coin. The final examination round coins minted for 2016 and the 2015 Shield of the Royal Arms 5th portrayal did not accede circulation, as they were only available through commemorative sets. [ 35 ] These were the harbor from the Royal Coat of Arms by Matthew Dent, and a design by Gregory Cameron, Bishop of St Asaph, of four heraldic beasts. [ 34 ] [ 36 ]
12-sided coin [edit ]
|2016||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||300,000,000 (initial launch in March 2017)|
|2017||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||749,616,200|
|2018||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||130,560,000|
|2019||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||138,635,000|
|2020||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||55,840,169|
Counterfeiting [edit ]
During later years of the round egyptian pound ‘s consumption, Royal Mint surveys estimated the proportion of counterfeit £1 coins in circulation. This was estimated at 3.04 % in 2013, a wax from 2.74 %. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The number previously announced in 2012 was 2.86 %, following the elongated rise from 0.92 % in 2002–2003 to 0.98 % in 2004, 1.26 % in 2005, 1.69 % in 2006, 2.06 % in 2007, 2.58 % in 2008, 2.65 % in 2009, 3.07 % in 2010 and 3.09 % in 2011. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Figures were by and large reported in the follow year ; in 2008 ( as reported in 2009 ), the highest levels of counterfeits were in Northern Ireland ( 3.6 % ) and the South East and London ( 2.97 % ), with the lowest being in Northwest England. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] Coin testing companies estimated in 2009 that the actual figure was about doubly the Mint ‘s estimate, suggesting that the Mint was underplaying the figures so as not to undermine assurance in the coin. [ 45 ] It is illegal to pass on forge currentness wittingly ; the official advice is to hand it in, with details of where received, to the patrol, who will retain it and investigate. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] One article suggested “ given that fake coins are worthless, you will about surely be better off not even looking ”. [ 45 ] The recipient role besides has recourse against the supplier in such cases. Counterfeits are put into circulation by corruptible people, then circulated unwittingly by others who are unaware ; in many cases banks do not check, and circulate counterfeits. In 2011 the BBC television plan Fake Britain withdrew 1,000 £1 coins from each of five major banks and found that each batch contained between 32 and 38 counterfeits ; the Mint estimated that about 31 per 1,000 £1 coins were counterfeit. [ 46 ] Some of the counterfeits were found by automated machinery, others could be detected only by adept ocular inspection. In July 2010, following guess that the Royal Mint would have to consider replacing £1 coins with a new design because of the fakes, bookmakers Paddy Power offered odds of 6/4 ( bet £4 to win £6, plus the £4 stake back ; decimal fraction odds of 2.5 ), that the £1 coin would be removed from circulation. [ 43 ] [ 48 ]
real and bogus rung lumber, showing poor-quality edge inscription and mill, and color dispute. Some counterfeits were of inadequate timbre, with obviously visible differences ( less precipitously defined, lacking intricate details, edge milling and markings visibly wrong ). many better counterfeits can be detected by comparing the predilection of the obverse and reverse —they should match in genuine modern UK coins, but identical much did not in forge orotund £1. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] The design on the change by reversal must be compensate for the emboss year ( for example, a 1996 coin should have a Celtic crisscross ). [ 49 ] It was difficult to manufacture round pounds with properly-produced edges ; the mill ( grooves ) was much incomplete or poor and the inscription ( frequently “ DECUS ET TUTAMEN ” ) sometimes ill produced or in the wrong font. [ 46 ] A glistening coin with less wear than its go steady suggests is besides distrust, although it may be a genuine coin that has rarely been used. [ 47 ] Counterfeit coins are made by unlike processes including shed, stamping, electrotyping, and copying with a pantograph or flicker corrosion. [ 50 ] In a 2009 surveil, 99 % of imposter £1 coins found in cash centres were made of a nickel-brass, of which three fifths contained some run and a fifth were of a identical like admixture to that used by the Royal Mint. The remaining 1 % were made of dim-witted copper-zinc brass, or lead or can, or both. [ 51 ] Those made of leave or can may have a gold-colored coat ; counterfeits made of acrylic fiber plastic containing metal powder to increase weight were occasionally found. [ 50 ] The final ’round pounds ‘ were minted in December 2015 ; the surrogate, a newly 12-sided design, was introduced in 2017, [ 52 ] the earliest dated as 2016. The mint has a 12-edged condition, exchangeable to the pre-decimal brass threepence coin ; it has approximately the like size as the previous £1 coin, and is bi-metallic like most £2 coins. The new design is intended to make counterfeiting more unmanageable, and besides has an undisclosed obscure security system feature called “ isis ” ( Integrated Secure Identification Systems ), [ 22 ] [ 53 ] thought to be a code embedded in the top layer of alloy on the obverse of the coin, visible entirely under a particular wavelength of ultraviolet lightly. [ 54 ] current two-pound coins, being bi-metallic ( excluding some rarely tender commemorative issues ), remain harder to counterfeit than the round pound was ; such counterfeits would much easily seen to have ill-timed colour ( s ) .
early pound coins that entered circulation [edit ]
While the cycle syrian pound was functional, others that entered circulation, although not legal attendant, in the UK were some £1 coins of british Crown Dependencies, Gibraltar and UK South Atlantic Overseas Territories. Most coins of these territories, in all denominations, were of the like size and composing as a UK equivalent and most bore the same portraits of the UK monarch. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] none of these territories rushed to replace their round impound coins except Gibraltar after the UK did indeed, which continues to use gibraltarian syrian pound coins as legal tender deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the new UK pound coins.
foster learn [edit ]
In an April 1993 The New Yorker article “ real Britannia ”, julian Barnes describes the meetings to choose the 1994–1997 turn back designs. [ 57 ] This is reprinted in his bible Letters from London as “ Britannia ‘s New Bra Size ” .
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Coincraft’s Standard Catalogue English & UK Coins 1066 to Date, Richard Lobel, Coincraft. ISBN 0-9526228-8-2